Interpretations

Daivadasakam - an interpretation by CNN Nair

DAIVADASAKAM - PREFACE

Sree Narayana Gurudev from Kerala was a Jnana Yogi  as well as Karma Yogi of the last century.

In Bhagvad Gita, Lord Krishna proclaims:

“Yada Yada hi Dharmasya Glanir bhavati, Bharata,
Abhyddhanam Adharmasya, Thad aalmanam Srujamyaham”

‘Whenever righteousness (Dharma) declines and  unrighteousness (Adharma)  flourishes, O,  Arjuna, then I manifest Myself into this world to re-establish Truth and Righteousness’.

Sree Narayana Guru was an example of this divine promises. In Kerala, there was decline in moral standards of society and it was full of incorrect practices because of improper interpretation of the holy texts. People practiced untouchability and caste system separated human beings. Sree Narayana Guru was born when these wrong practices were at the peak in Kerala. By devoting an entire life to educate people and bring them all under the principle of ‘One Caste for all Humanity’, the Guru re-established a healthy social system in Kerala. He also discouraged other bad practices such as drinking etc. He laid great stress on education and declared it as the basis of social progress. During his life, he traveled far and wide to propagate this mission. He was a scholar of great understanding of the ancient Indian text like Vedas and Upanishads. He was proficient in Sanskrit and Tamil besides Malayalam. He wrote in all three languages.

He firmly believed that there is only one God and the soul within us ( Jeevatma) and the Supreme godhead (Paramatma) were one and the same .[ The Philosophy of Adwaita – Non Duality ] But, he wrote many hymns and prayers addressed to different deities worshipped in Kerala  like Siva,Vishnu, Ganapati, Devi and so on in Sanskrit, Tamil and Malayalam.

He had taken some children under his tutelage in the Asram (hermitage) at Varkala. For their benefit, he wrote a small prayer consisting of Ten Stanzas or Slokas known as “Daivadasakam”.
‘Daiva’ means pertaining to God and ‘Dasakam” means ten. He used very simple Malayalam words in this and the meter employed was also the shortest, called ‘Anushtip’- i.e. one line has only eight syllables. In this, he compressed the entire philosophical concept of the relationship between Man and God, as propounded in our ancient texts. This was the prayer they used both during dawn and at bed-time.  It was easy for the children to memorize this and recite aloud.

Although the words used by the Guru are relatively simple, they contain profound philosophical wisdom. Often the meaning spread over several layers. It is an essence of Upanishadic wisdom. Primarily, it presents the concept of a Universal Father, benevolent, merciful and eager to guide the humanity, helping them not to go astray. In ancient Hindu texts, ‘Life’ is often described as a journey in an ocean, full of various perils and involvements- “ samsaara saagaram “. Unless you have a proper guide to navigate you in this ocean, you may simply get lost! God is the ultimate guide as well as the Goal of all humanity. The Guru uses this concept in this very small but extremely elegant poem.  Total humility of a devotee runs all through this work.           

Despite its small size, this poem had elicited large number of huge commentaries. They go far beyond the obvious, simple meaning and bring out the ancient wisdom incorporated the obvious, simple style. These are available in Malayalam and English.

My friend, Sri C.C. Sudhakaran, an ardent devotee of Sree Narayana Guru, during an informal meet in May 2007, mentioned the inability of the little children of Keralite parents in Mumbai, not familiar with Malayalam language, in understanding the simple meaning of this sublime prayer and wanted me to render it into English exclusively for this purpose. It appeared to be a rather simple task; but once I began, I realized, I have bitten off a little more than I could chew! Simple, those words did look like indeed, but to convey what they meant, was no easy task.

Still, an effort is made and is presented below. Only the primary meaning of the poem is considered in this. God is the Universal Father. All human beings are little children, clinging on to undertake and they need reliable guidance from authority at every step. They need to be protected ; provided with everything and guided. They may need to be corrected if they chance to go astray. God is not a stern lawgiver who is bent on punishing for errors; He is benevolent and merciful. The bondage between man and God is this ‘Divine Love’. The relationship between man and God is based on this Trust, which is ‘Faith’. The prayer is from innocent children to their all-knowing, all powerful father to help them, to guide them and finally to save them eternally.  The thoughts flow gently like a stream from the first to the last stanza, each illustrating and complementing the other. The universality and greatness of the Creator is pervading all through this magnificent piece. Only that meaning which would convey this essence is dealt with here.

Translating from one language to another has its own difficulties. The simpler the original, the harder, the result. Words with many meanings, letters with varying pronunciation etc. are road-blocks. To guide those children for whom Malayalam is a mother tongue only in name, some basic information is provided at the beginning.

The more curious and the more grown up look up more exhaustively dealt with commentaries and explanation by authorities on the subject. Detailed works are available from ‘ Sivagiri Madhom’, Kerala, or the state Institute of Language, Kerala Thiruvananthapuram-3.

In order to fully appreciate the contribution and the silent revolution in the social sphere that the Guru had brought about, I had given a brief outline of his ‘Life History’ at the beginning. Also, a comprehensive list of the voluminous literary output of the Guru is given at the end which would help the student in knowing him better. I hope both would be beneficial to the readers in general and students in particular.

I would consider my efforts somewhat rewarded, if some interest is kindled in the minds of the children who go through this small book and they search for bigger and better volumes on this subject to know and seek Guru’s blessings.

Mumbai, June 2007                                                                                                                 Dr. C.N.N.Nair  
 

SREE NARAYANA GURU-A Brief Life Story

Sree Narayana Guru, one of the greatest philosopher-poet-saints and social reformers of Kerala, was born at 6.15 am on Tuesday 28th August 1855, in Chempazhanti, near Trivandrum, Kerala.

He had his primary and higher education during 1860 to 1880. His great teacher was ‘Karthikapalli Kummanpalli Raman Pillai Asaan’. He was initiated to the ordinary life in 1882 with a formal marriage, but dissociated from it and took to Sanyas – renunciation – immediately. He studied Yoga techniques under Thaikkad Ayya Swami (1884) and developed a personal bondage with another great reformer of the times, Chattampi Swamikal around this period.

Sree Narayana Guru was a tireless crusader for socials equality and fought against all sorts of discrimination prevalent against the down-trodden and the oppressed, in his times. One of the greatest social evils of the period was discrimination based on caste/creed – the untouchability. The Guru traveled far and wide with his missionary message to awaken the masses and guide them in the proper direction.

‘Aruvippuram’ is a small village near the river ‘Neyyar’ in Trivandrum. He was worshipping Siva during the days of his meditation. In 1888, he himself installed a Siva’s idol – Siva Linga’ in the temple premises there. This was a path-breaking event because, so far, only select Brahmin priests had the authority by convention to install idols of divinities. There were criticisms about this unconventional step; but he answered them by saying that ‘I installed only an Ezhava Siva’. He opted for the path of conciliation rather than confrontation. He got the following lines inscribed at this temple gate:

“Jathibhedam Matha Dwesham Aethumillathe Sarvarum
Sodaratwena Vazhunna Marthukaa Sthanamaanithu.”

[This is an ideal place of worship, wherein people live together in brotherly affection without any distinction of caste creed or hatred thereto.]

The Guru, then went on installing deities in different places in Kerala. In some places, he
installed a ‘mirror’ instead of the image or idol of any deity to convey the message that ‘You
are yourself  God!’ The Mirror as idol are at :

(1) Kalavankod, Cherthalai and (2) Ullala near Vaikom – Omkareswara Temple.

In 1895, he took a young boy to Bangalore and handed over to Dr.Palpu, another well-known social reformer of great zeal of his times. This boy later developed into one of the finest philosopher-poets of Kerala – with title of Mahakavi – as “Kumaran Asaan’”.  Sree Narayana Guru himself was a profile writer in propose and verse. Several prayers and hymns were written by him in praise of various gods and goddesses besides other philosophical works. To propagate his mission, an organization was registered in 1903, which grew as ‘Sree Narayan Dharma ParilpalanaYogam’; [S.N.D.P] – registered in 1928 and today, it is known world over as the representatives body propagating the Guru’s teachings.

The Guru met a great visionaries of his times including Sree Ramana Maharshi (1916), Poet Rabindranath Tagore (1922) and Gandhiji (1925) and drew appreciation of and admiration from all these great men about his vision, philosophy and life.
 

His important messages

        ‘One Caste, One Religion, One God for All Humanity’-
              [Oru Jaati, Oru Matam, Oru Daivam Manushyanu.]  and
        ‘Whichever be one’s Religion, it is enough if the Man himself improves’.
                [Matam Aetaayaalum manushyan nannayal mati.]   

In 1920, he sent out a clear message against the social evil ‘drinking liquor’ and exhorted people to desist from drinking.

“Liquor is Poison. Do not Drink it. Do not Produce it. Do not Distribute it.”

In 1924, he organized a Conference of all Religions – the first of its kind in India, in Alwaye, Kerala. Its avowed purpose, he outlined, was ‘Not to argue and win: but to know and disseminate’. He traveled widely in Kerala and visited Sri Lanka twice (in 1918 and 1928) to propagate his message.

On 20 September, 1928, at 3.30 pm, Sree Narayana Guru attained ‘Samadhi’ and his soul merged with the Absolute – Brahman.
 

D A I V A D A S A K A M

1

Daivamae! kaathukolkangu
Kai vitaathingu njangale
Naavikan Nee bhavabdhikko –
Raavivanthoni Nin Padam.

2

Onnonnay enniyenni tho-
Ttennum porulotungiyaal
Ninnitum drukkupol ullam
Ninnilaspandamaakanam.

3

Annavastradi muttathe
Thannu rakshichu njangale
Dhanyaraakkunna nee yonnu-
Thanne njangalkku thampuraan.

4

Aazhiyum thirayum kaattum
Aaazhavum pole njangalum
Maayayum nin mahimayum
Neeyumennullilaakanam.

5

Neeyallo srushtiyum srashtaa-
Vaayathum srushtijaalavum,
Neeyallo Daivamae! srushti-
Kkulla saamagriyayathum.

6
Neeyallo maayayum maaya-
Viyum maayaavinodanum,
Neeyallo maayaye neekki-
Ssaayoojyam nalkumaaryanum.

7

Nee satyam, jnanamaanandam,
Nee thane varthamaanavum,
Bhoothavum bhaaviyum vera-
Llothum mozhiyumorkkil nee.

8

Akavum puravum thingum
Mahimaavarnna nin padam,
Pukazhthunnu njangal angu
Bhagavanae , Jayikkuka!

9

Jayikkuka Mahaadeva,
Deenaavana paraayana!
Jayikkuka chidaananda,
Dayaasindho Jayikkuka!

10

Aazhamerum nin mahassa-
Maazhiyil njangalaakavae,
Aazhanam vaazhanam nithyam
Vaazhanam vaazhanam sukham.

Om Shanti:   Shanti:   Shanti:
 

Guide to pronunciation

Some Vowels:

‘a’ in ‘Akavum’; ‘angu’   -to sound like Absolute, Assist, At

‘aa’ in ‘Aazhi’, ‘Bhaavi’ etc.   -to sound as ‘Pan’ ‘Ban’ ‘can’

‘ae’ in ‘Daivamae’   -to sound as in ‘Pay’; bay

‘e’ in ‘ennu’, pole’   -to sound like ‘Pen’, ‘hen’

‘i’ in ningal   -to sound like ‘Pin’, ‘sin’

‘ee’ in Nee -as in ‘Bee’, ‘See’ ‘key’

‘ai’ in ‘kai’ -  to sound like ‘buy’ ‘pie’ ‘shy’

‘o’ in porul, mozhi - to sound like ‘only’

‘o’ in ‘allo’,’ ‘Othum’ - as in bellow, pillow, oval, over

‘u’ in Pukazhunnu - as in ‘ put’ ‘good’

‘oo’ in Sayoojyam - to sound like ‘boot’,‘ soot’

Some Consonants

‘d’ in ‘Daivamae’, Drukku’, ‘Daya’, Deena’ -as in ‘thy’, ‘they’, ‘then’

‘l’ in njangal, porul -as in ‘cult’, ‘ malt’

‘l’ in ‘Nalkum’, ‘Orkil’ -as in ‘ milk’, ‘ silk’

‘ r ‘ in ‘Aazhamerum’ ‘puravum’ -as in ‘right’, ‘river’, ‘worry’

‘r’ in, ‘thira’ ‘aaryan’ -as in ‘parrot’, carry’

‘th’ in ‘ thoni’ -as in ‘thought’

‘t’ in ‘ vitathe’ -as in ‘tight’, ‘tell’

‘zh’ in ‘Aazhi’, Mozhy,’Aazhana’, ‘Vaazhanam’ -as in ‘Mercy’, ‘parcel’

Each language has its peculiarities. It is not always possible to have a complete equivalent pronunciation of every letter or word. Some general observation in this context about this work are as below;

For the English letter “N”, there are three distinct modes of pronunciation in Malayalam.

For eg.

(1) Naavikan.. Nee.. Nin.. [S.1]

(2) Navikan .. Aavivan .. Nin [S.12] Aanandam [S.7]

(3) Enni yenni [S.2] Aakanam [S.2/4] Aazhanam, Vaazhanam [S.10].

It is difficult to find equivalent in English for the first type.

Incase (2), the ‘n’ is sounded like as in ‘No’, ‘Never’, ‘Name’, ‘Now’ etc.

The case (3) the ‘n’ takes the sound as in ‘Money’, ‘Honey’, ‘Noun’ etc.

In stanzas 2, ‘Onnonnay …’ the sound is as in the first case, but stressed. So also in S.3,’Thannu’ But, S.2 last line ‘Ninnil’ and S.3, ‘ Anna.. .’, the pronunciation is a stressed case (2) above.

There are some words having more than one meaning:

Eg. S.4 in the last …Neeyu mennullil’.

‘Ennullil’ has two meaning: if stressed as in case (1), it means, ‘and thus, in mind’

and if stressed as in (2) above, ‘in my mind’

The word ‘Aazhi’ has two meanings:(1) Ocean, (2) A place where fire is burning.

‘Padam’ - with short vowel ‘a’ means (1) Feet (2) position/status and (3) word.

Om Santi:

“Om”, ( sometimes written as AUM”) is considered as the root of all Mantras.- ‘Moola Mantra’. It is known as the ‘Pranava Sabda’. It is said to embody the Hindu Trinity, Brahma, Vishnu and Maheswar (Siva). It is the primordial voice and everything in this University is said to have emerged out of it. It precedes almost all chanting. In one of the mirrors that Guru installed as deity, he got Om inscribed in it. It is holy symbol for Hindus.

Santi: ‘Santi:’ - is pronounced as ‘shantih’.[ Sound of ‘s’ between ‘smiles’ and ‘ shape’]. It is the invocation for Universal Peace. All religious holy texts end with this, usually repeated thrice. This is supposed to give sanity and religious authority to the texts.
 

Meaning

 

1

Daivamae! kaathukolkangu
Kai vitaathingu njangale;
Naavikan Nee bhavabdhikko –
Raavivanthoni Nin Padam.

Daivamae! Kaathukolka + angu – Kaivitaathe + ingu +njangale
Naavikan-Nee – bhava + abdhiku – Oru + Aavi-van-thoni + Nin + padam.

Daivamae! (O God!) Kaathukolka (protect) + angu (you) – Kaivitaathe (without leaving hold of our hands) + ingu (here) + njangale (us) Naavikan-Nee (You are the Navigator / Captain) – bhava + abdhikku ( in the Ocean of troublesome life)- Oru (a) + Aavi-van-thoni (great steamship) + Nin (your) + padam.(feet)

O, God! We pray to you. Kindly protect us here in this world; do not desert us even for a moment. Let us cling on to your hand (as children do to their father’s hands). To the life, which is like an ocean full of perils, you are the guiding Navigator. And Your feet (words) are the most dependable steamship in which we will be able to safely sail across this ocean and reach our final destination (which is God Himself)  in this life.

The opening Word is an appeal to God. It is addressing God. This is the God whom every human being worships, irrespective of caste, creed or place. No name [like Vishnu, Siva, Krishna, Allah or Jesus] is given to this God, purposely, to make it a Universal Prayer. The author, Sree Narayana Guru, a great scholar, believed only in One Universal God, although he did compose several hymns and prayers praising different deities like Ganapati, Vishnu, Siva, Devi and Subramania. In these ten stanzas of Daivasatakam, however, he has used the simplest diction. It was meant to be sung by young children as regular prayer, at the Asram (hermitage) he founded at Varkala, Kerala. In this prayer, God is depicted as the benevolent Universal Father and all human beings at little children who need to be taken care of and guided always by Him. The Guru here paints a verbal picture of children clinging on to the hand of their father, appealing him not to leave them for a moment, lest they get lost. In religious works, life is often compared to an ocean, infested with dangerous sea-monster, shark and whales, mighty waves, whirlpools etc. Only an experienced guide can paddle a boat safely through the waters of the Sea. And, the humans on the other hand, are small, fragile, ignorant beings who always need to be looked after and guided by someone who loves them and  who knows the route to avoid perils. God is thus the Navigator and his word, (wisdom) or foot is the most dependable steam-ship which helps us cross this ocean and reach our final destination. This Faith (Viswas) is possible only with total devotion (Bhakti). The final assertion shows complete faith in God’s grace and magnanimity and His goodwill towards all humanity. The humility of devotees is all-pervading.

2

Onnonnay enniyenni tho-
Ttennum porul odungiyaal
Ninnidum drukkupol ullam
Ninnil aspandam aakanam.

Onnonnayi + enni + enni + Thottennum + porul + odungiyaal
Ninnidum + drukku + pol + ullam – Ninnil + aspandam + aakanam.

Onnonnayi  (One by one,) + enni + enni (counting and counting,) + Thottennum (when that counting-out) + porul (items,materials or sight) + otungiyaal (gets over) Ninnidum (remains) + drukku (eyes or the one who sees) + pol (how … so also) + ullam (my mind ) – Ninnil (in Your thoughts,) + aspandam (unwavering) + aakanam.(should remain).

If we count out every object, finally nothing will be left to be counted except the one who counts or sees. Even then, gradually keep counting out the components which constitutes him, (both physically and spiritually ), then what is left is the Ultimate; God. And hence, my mind should get fixed in Your thoughts and remain unwavering there. (Everything else can be discarded or separated.)

Our mind is, by the very nature, unstable. If we attempt to free ourselves and our minds from the influence of external factors, it is not easy. The final goal in life is to reach God. It becomes necessary to escape from the influences around us. So, one by one, if we start discarding items (materials) around ourselves, (or getting detached from these bondages),  a stage will come when there is nothing left, except the person who began this  process. Even after, if we continue this process of distancing ourselves from what constitutes us, then what is visible is the eternal light which is nothing but God. The prayer is thus to be able to see only that inner light constantly; uninterruptedly. In other words, let our minds become capable of concentrating only on God. Rest all are of no eternal value.

3

Annavastradi muttathe
Thannu rakshichu njangale
Dhanyarakkunna neeyonnu-
Thanne njangalkku thampuraan.

Anna – vastra – Aadi + muttathe – Thannu + rakshichu + njangale
Dhanyar + aakkunna + nee + onnu – Thanne + njangalkku + thampuraan.

Anna Food, – vastra clothing – Aadi etc. +  muttathe  without any break or interruption, – Thannu provide + rakshichu and thus protect + njangale us
 Dhanyar contented and spiritually elevated, + aakkunna and make + nee you, + onnu – Thanne  alone are, + njangalkku for us + thampuraan. Our Supreme Lord!

You who give us food, clothing and all other essential items for our survival  regularly, without any break and protect us; keep us contented and spiritually elevated, You alone are therefore our  Supreme Lord!

The basic requirements in life of every human being are Food, clothing and shelter. Only when these are satisfied, can person think of higher levels of existence.
If a person is hungry or if he has no proper clothes or shelter; he cannot concentrate on higher objectives in life like studies or job.  His mind will be constantly disturbed. So the most fundamental thing one wants in life are food, clothes and shelter. Once these requirements are met, our minds become free to pursue higher and nobler thoughts and action. These basic requirements are provided to us in plenty by God without any interruption. We humans are therefore grateful to God for this kindness and we realize His love and concern for our welfare. We therefore consider God as our Supreme Lord!

Further, we have to realize that the source of all good things in life is God. We might be tempted to think that these are the results of our work and hence are our ‘achievements’.  This is a false sense of pride.  Everything comes from God. We are just given the chance to hold  part of the prosperity for interim custody. Use that chance for the well-being of the poor and the depressed. You are so positioned by none other than God. Forget not this and be humble.
 

4

Aazhiyum thirayum kaattum
Aazhavum pole njangalum
Maayayum nin mahimayum
Neeyum ennullilaakanam.

Aazhiyum + thirayum + kaattum – Aazhavum – pole – njangalum
Maayayum – nin – mahimayum – Neeyum – ennu – ullilaakanam.

Aaazhiyum The Ocean, +  thirayum the waves, + kattum the winds, – Aazhavum the fathomless depths, – pole so also – njangalum we too, Maayayum Illusion – nin your – mahimayum supreme glory – Neeyum and You Yourself – ennu and likewise - ullilaakanam. Should reside within us.

Like the ocean, the waves, the winds, the fathomless depths, so also are God, we ourselves, Your Glory and the Illusion – this thought should always reside within us.

As long as the feeling of ‘I’, ‘We’ ‘You’, ‘They’ etc. persist in our minds, we are said to be subjected to the Illusion – Maya. This sense of separateness from God will vanish with the drawn of absolute knowledge. Finally, all these will merge into one i.e. GOD. This is the final goal of human life. Here the examples are given. We can see the majestic Ocean, the perpetual waves that rise and vanish on its surface , we can perceive that the waves are caused by the wind over the ocean surface; and we also know that although it looks deceptively simple on surface, the depths of ocean varies immeasurably. All these are the resulting effects of the supreme power. God is the ocean, majestic and permanent; we are like waves, having very small periods of existence;[waves rise from the water of ocean and return to the ocean after a while – so too, we come from God and return to him after a short life span of some years]; the cause of our being is by virtue of divine Glory and the varying depths of  ocean beds is the great Illusion, Maya. This thought should always reside in our minds.

In essence, we emerge from God and return unto Him.  We are not separate from God,[The Theory of Non-Duality – Adwaita.] just like waves are not different from waters of ocean. We are transitory, short-lived.  God alone is eternal.

5

Neeyallo srushtiyum srashtaa-
Vaayathum srushtijaalavum
Neeyallo Daivamae srushti-
Kkulla saamagriyayathum.

Nee – allo – srushtiyum – srashtav –aayathum  srushtijaalavum,
Nee – allo – Daivamae! – srushtikkulla  saamagri – aayathum.

Nee You – allo are indeed – srushtiyum the very process of creation, – srashtav –aayathum so also you are the creator and  srushtijaalavum, all the creations.
Nee You yourself, – allo are – Daivamae! O,Lord! – srushtkkulla this universal  creation. Saamagri the entire materials – aaythum which forms.

O, God! You are indeed the very process of creation of the Universe. You are the creator of the Universe. And You are yourself the entire creation too.  Again, You are the prime source material out of which the entire creation are so produced.

Three words are often mentioned as attributes of the Supreme God: Omni-potent, Omniscient, Omni-present. God is all Powerful; was always there and pervades everything in the universe. Before this universe came into being, God was there. He will be there even after this Universe disintegrates – after period of time. So, he is Endless. God created the Universe as a result of His will; not because of any external influence, nor using any material outside Himself.  Thus, the concept of creation was in Him. He is the creator of the universe; He did not need any outside help.  And, whatever is created by Him, is also manifestations or various forms of He Himself! And hence, He is present in everything in the universe; and there is no place where He is absent.

The essence of this is the realization that ‘I’, ‘ This Universe’ and ‘God’ are not different entities, but  different aspects of one and the same – the ‘Brahmam’ – Supreme Godhead.

The underlying idea conveyed is that there is only One God for the entire Universe. And, this God fills the entire Universe as well. Hence, you and I and each one of us are all part and parcel of that supreme God.    Further, the concepts of God as the creator and protector are also embedded in this stanza.

 

6

Neeyallo maayayum maaya-
Viyum maayaavinodanum
Neeyallo maayaye neekki-
Ssaayoojyam nalkumaaryanum.

Nee + allo + Maayayum + - Maayaviyum + - Maayaa – vinodanum,
Nee – allo + Maayayae + neekki + Saayoojyam + nalkum + Aaryanum.

Nee You + allo are also + Maayayum the Illusion  + - Maayaviyum the one who creates the sense of Illusion; + Maayaa – vinodanum, the one who entertains oneself in the effects of illusion created by himself Nee – allo And you yourself are also the one who + Maayayae all such illusion + neekki  remove + Saayoojam final liberation from this bondage and merger with the Absolute + nalkum and give us  + Aaryanum. the Super Being.

You are Yourself the Illusion; You are the creator of Illusion, and You only play and enjoy with the Illusion so produced. And, again, It is You, the Supreme Being, who remove all these Illusions and give final salvation to everyone of us in this universe.

In philosophical terms, when something truly does not exist; but to those who observe, it appears to exist, this is said to be because of an illusion -“Maya”. An interesting example is often cited in this context.. If you suddenly find a coiled coir or rope in front of you in twilight, you may quickly step back suspecting it to be a snake. The feeling that ‘it is a snake’ will continue till you examine and confirm that it is simply a rope! So, even though there was no snake, the feeling of ‘snake-ness’ created in you is responsible for all the reactions from you if you really saw a snake in front of you. This is known as “Sarpa Rajju Nyaya”. The entire Universe keeps changing every moment. Nothing is permanent. Yet, we feel that all that we see are permanent and real. This is because of the effect of illusion and is the result of  ‘Maya’ as per Vedantic philosophy. The root cause for illusion is the inability to know or understand the ultimate Truth. This is known as state of ‘ignorance’ ( ‘Ajnjana’ or ‘Avidya’ ). In order to get out of this state and obtain real Knowledge ( ‘Jnana’ or ‘Vidya’), one needs the help of God in the form of a Master (Guru)  The Guru helps dispel the darkness of ignorance and bring in the light into your inner eye. With that Maya vanishes and God illumines in our inner mind. We then realize that what ever else we had been witnessing around us in the world was just part of divine entertainment (Esawara Leela), In short, it is God who is responsible for the illusion and it is he alone who can liberate us from its effects and ‘rescue’ us to become one with Him.

God gives us the option to choose the right path which leads to light or knowledge. We should develop that wisdom which will help us to make the right choice.

7

Nee satyam, jnanam, aanadam
Nee thaane vartamaanavum
Bhoothavum bhaaviyum vera-
 Llothum mozhiyum orkkil Nee.

Nee – satyam, - Jnanam, - Aanadam, - Nee – thaane – varthamaanavum,
Bhoothavum – bhaaviyum – veral – lothum – mozhiyum – orkkil - Nee

Nee You are – satyam, the absolute Truth - Jnanam, supreme knowledge, - Aanadam, and Bliss(Happiness); - Nee – thaane You only are  – varthamaanavum,  the present., Bhoothavum – bhaaviyum the past and the Future – verall –  none else othum – mozhiyum the spoken words also, – orkkil and when one ponders, - Nee but yourself!

You are the Absolute Truth; Supreme knowledge and Eternal bliss. [‘Sat-Chid-Anand”] You are the Past,  the Present and the Future. And when we think seriously, even these very words are also only Yourself!

All sublime attributes germinate from and culminate in God. What is perceived by the five senses and by the mind all lead to God. In the end, there is only God and nothing else exists.

God is the Absolute Truth; He is the Supreme Knowledge. He is the Ultimate Bliss, Happiness.
These are the chief attributes of Brahmam that is, Supreme God head.  In vedantic terms, this culmination is denoted by “Sat-Chid-Anand”.  [ If one reaches this state, one will desire nothing more further!  This is the final Goal, eternal happiness!] God transcends all barriers of Time.  Hence, He is the Present, the Past and Future as well. Why, even every uttered is nobody else other than God!

8

Akavum puravum thingum
Mahimaavarnna nin padam
Pukazthunnu njangal angu
Bhagavaanae, Jayikkuka.

Akavum + puravum + thingum – Mahimaav – aarnna – Nin – padam,
Pukazhthunnu – njangal – angu - Bhagavaanae, Jayikkuka!

Akavum Both inside + puravum and outside(of this entire universe) + thingum which  fills up  – Mahimaav - the supreme greatness   aarnna  Nin  padam of your name, Pukazhthunnu keep praising – njangal we – angu  Bhagavaanae Hail Thyself, O, God! Jayikkuka! Victory to you!

We, here, keep praising the Supreme Glory of your name, which fills up both inside and outside this entire universe. Hail O, God! Victory to you!

If you consider any part of space; say a room or a glass, there can be two positions with respect to this part; i.e. inside it or outside. Even inside, there can be two conditions, part full and completely full. Thus, a glass can have part water or full water. A room may be part filled with some material or fully filled. When we normally consider something is empty, we mean there is noting visible or tangible in it. But even when a glass or room is said to be empty, it is filled with ‘space’. Thus, ‘space’, which is called Aakasa’ is everywhere; there is no space not filled with ‘Aakasa’. God’s glory is similar to; but much greater than the Aakasa; it fills to brim both inside and outside of every perceivable object or space. In other words, the Universe is filled with God. There is nothing, no space where God is not present. This is the great glory of God.  In this context, the alternative meaning of the word ‘Padam’ – God’s feet - also is equally relevant. Since God is Cosmic in shape and size, his feet fill every conceivable space. While we realize this, we are amazed and we are conscious of our smallness in comparison. When we salute the greatness of the highest and mightiest power of God in its praise, we are actually surrendering ourselves to that infinite glory. We are thus recognizing the awareness of our smallness and God’s infinite greatness as we utter the words, ‘Hail, O, Lord!’ in addressing God.
   

9

       
Jayikkuka Mahaadeva,
Deenaavana paraayana,
Jayikkuka chidaananda,
Dayaasindho jayikkuka.

        Jayikkuka Mahaadeva! + Deena – avana – paraayana!
        Jayikkuka – chidaananda! – Dayaa-sindho, jayikkuka!

Jayikkuka Hail, Mahaadeva! O, God of all gods! + Deenaavana to protect the down-trodden and the weak  paraayana who is ever ready, eager Jayikkuka Hail, – chidaananda the one who is Absolute Bills! – Dayaa-sindho, O, Ocean of mercy! jayikkuka! Hail!

Hail, O, God of all gods! He who is ever ready to protect the down-trodden and the weak, Hail, O, the one who is the Absolute Bliss, Hail, O, Ocean of mercy!

Various attributes of the Supreme Godhead are indicated in this prayer, Different devotes pray to God for different reasons, seeking different boons or graces. Some want wealth, some glory, some, protection from enemies, some, relief from poverty or sickness; some, for internal happiness and so on. All graces and boons can be granted only by the supreme God and all devotes have complete faith in this. It is this absolute faith in the power and goodwill of the Supreme God, Brahman, which is reflected in these lines. Again, when a devotee says, “Hail to Thee, O, Lord” he is only stressing on his own faith in God. Because, we humans cannot add to divine glory, we can only supplicate before Him.  We may also note the stress on the quality of Mercy and Sympathy and Benevolence which overflow from the grace of God. These are positive qualities. There is no place for anger or vengeance in the presence of god. God is very much concerned with the well-being of the lowly and the poor. Twice this aspect stressed in this:’ Deenavana Parayana; [Ever concerned with and willing to uplift the weak, the suffering and the lowly] and ‘Daya sindho’ (Ocean of Mercy) – limitless source of mercy]. Further, all that we usually refers as ‘Happiness’, is merely transitory. When the source which gives us happiness gets transformed or reduced or becomes absent, the happiness given by it also vanishes.   But, God is the embodiment of happiness, eternal bliss – Ananda.  So, permanent or external happiness can only be granted by God because once we reach that stage, we will never be deprived of that. Compared to this, other material pleasures which give us transitory happiness like position, power, wealth, wealth etc. are secondary in nature and are always showered on the devotees by the all powerful God[ Maha Deva] on all his devotees or Bhaktas.

10

Aazhamaerum nin mahassa-
Maazhiyil njangalaakavae
Aazhanam vaazhanam nithyam
Vaazhanam vaazhanam sukham.

Aazham –aerum – fathomless nin your – mahassam Supreme Glory – Aazhiyil – in the ocean of njangal we – aakavae – all Aazhanam should immerse ourselves;
Vaazhanam – nithyam remain so for ever, Aazanam vaazanam Sukham immerse, enjoy supreme bliss (eternal happiness).

In the fathomless ocean of your Supreme Glory, we all should immerse ourselves; immerse and remain so for ever, enjoying supreme bliss (eternal happiness).

God’s supreme glory is limitless like an ocean in  spread and depth. Also, as we gradually approach the presence of God, by virtuous living, noble action and devotion to Him, we become purer and purer. Each human being has a soul, often referred to as ‘Jeevatma’, which has a longing to reach and merge with God which is known as ‘Paramatma’. The belief and faith is that once Jevatma gets merged with Paramatma,  it ceases to have a separate identity and is permanently freed from the cycles of births and deaths. The soul then enjoys supreme Bliss. This is  Man’s final Goal.

The prayer here is thus seeking the supreme grace from God which will allow the devotees to submerge themselves in the limitless ocean of divine Glory and remain immersed there eternally, enjoying supreme Bliss. We may further note that the prayer is for the entire humanity and not just for one individual . In other words, universal salvation, not individual relief, is sought in the prayer. The difference between ‘I’ and ‘We’ vanishes as true knowledge descends in our inner conscience.  Then darkness vanishes and divine light illuminates the inner self.

Notice the repetition of the word ‘Vaazhanam’.  The guru is extremely economical with words used in this small prayer; yet he used this word thrice in succession in the final stanza.  That is indicative of the thrill experienced by the soul when it sets its vision on the approaching merger with the Absolute.  If we are returning after a long journey to the waiting arms of our beloved ones, their mere sight would excite us. Similarly, the excitement of ‘Jeevatma’ at the prospects of merging with ‘Paramatma’ is at the root of this ecstatic statement.

Om  Shanti: Shanti: Shanti:
 
[ Let there be Universal Peace all around! ]

-----xxx-----
 

WORKS OF SREE NARAYANA GURU

Philosophical

Atmopadesa satakam         [One Hundred Verses of Self Instruction] – Malayalam
Dasrana Mala                      [Garland of Vision] – Sanskrit
Advaita Deepika                  [The Lamp of Non-Duality] – Malayalam
Arivu                                    [Consciousness] – Malayalam
Daivasatakam                     [Ten Verses on God ] – Malayalam
Brahmavidya Panchakam    - Brahma Vidya in five verses – Sanskrit
Vedanta Sutra                     [Sanskrit] Essence of Vedanta in Sutras
Nirvruti Panchakam             - [Five verses: Final Self – Absorption] Sanskrit
Sloka Trayi                          [Three verses in Sanskrit]
Homa Mantra                      [A Mantra for Burnt Sacrifice]

HYMNS

Vinayaka Ashtakam            [Eight Verses on Ganapati] – Sanskrit
Sri Vasudeva Ashtkam        [Eight verses on Vishnu] – Sanskrit
Vishnu Ashtakam            [Eight verses on Vishnu] – Sanskrit
Sreekrishna Darsanam        [A vision on  Sreekrishna] – Malayalam
Sivaprasada Panchakam        [Five verses on the Grace of Lord Siva] – Malayalam
Sadasiva Darsanam            [A Vision of the Eternal Siva] - Malayalam
Sivasatakam                [One Hundred Verses on Siva] – Malayalam
Ardhanareeswara Stavam        [A Hymn to the Androgynous Siva] – Malayalam
Mananateetam                [Beyond Comprehension] – Malayalam
Chitha Chintanam            [Reflection on Mind and Matter] – Malayalam
Kundalini Pattu            [A song of Kundalini Snake] – Malayalam
Indriya vairagyam            [Detachment from the Pleasures of the Senses] – Malayalam
Prapancha Srushti            [The Creation of the Universe] – Malayalam
Kolateeresa Sthavam            [Hymn to Kolateeresa] - Malayalam
Swanubhava Giti            [ The Lyric Revelation of the Realised Self] – Malayalam
Pinda Nandi                [Foetal gratitude] – Malayalam
Chidambara Ashtakam        [Eight Verses on Mental space] – Sanskrit
Thevara Patikangal            [Five Songs in Praise of Siva] – Tamil
A Single Tamil Verse Praising Siva
Devi Stavam                [Hymn to Goddess] – in Malayalam
Mannanthala Devi Stavam        [Hymn to Devi at Mannanthala] – Malayalam
Kali Natakam                [Dance drama of Kali] – Malayalam
Janani Nava Ratna Manjari        [A Nine Gemmed Bouquet on Mother]
Bhadrakali Ashtakam            [Eight verses on Bhadrakali] – Malayalam
Shanmukha stotram                  -A Hymn to the six-headed (Shanmukha) God –– Malayalam Shanmukha Dasakam            -Ten verses addressed to Shanmukha – in Malayalam
Shanmatura Stavam            -Hymn in praise of the god with six mothers – In Sanskrit
Subramanya Kirtanam        -In praise of Subramanya – Malayalam
Nava Manjari                - A Bouquet of Nine verses – in Malayalam
Guha Ashtakam            - Eight verses on Gubha ( Subramanya ) – in Sanskrit
Bahuleya Ashtakam                     - Eight verses address to Bahuleya (Subramanya) – in Sanskrit
Devi Pranama Devyashtakam        - Eight verses addressed to Devi – in Sanskrit

Works of Moral Value

Jeeva Karunya Panchakam    - Five Verses on Kindness to life – in Malayalam
Anukampa Dasakam        - Ten Verses on Mercy  – in Malayalam
Jaati Nirnayam            - A critique of Caste : Verses – one Sanskrit, Six Malayalam
Jaati Lakshanam :        - Definition of Jati – in Malayalam
Sadacharam            - Pattern of Good Behavior – in Malayalam
Municharya panchakam    - Five verse on the life of a recluse – in Malayalam
Ahimsa            -  Non-Hurting – in Malayalam
Asramam            - In Sanskrit
Dharmam            - In Sanskrit
An Obittuary of two verses on Sri Chattampi Swamikal
Completion of an incomplete verse - - in Malyalam
                    ( Greeting to the Dharmakumaran Monthly)
Sri Narayana Smruti        - in Sanskrit :
[Written by Awami Atmananda as a Dialouge
between the Guru and Sishyas.]

Translation

ISA Upanishad        - From Sanskrit – Original to Malayalam
Tirukkural            - From Tamil Original to Malayalam.

Prose Works

Cijjada Chintakam        : Reflection on Mind and Matter – in Malayalam
Daiva Chintanam-I        : Reflection on God – in Malayalam
Daiva Chintanam II         : Reflection on God – in Malayalam
Gadya Prarthana        : A Prayer in Prose : - in Malayalam
Atma Vilasam            : Self Manifestation – in Malyalam

The Author

Dr. C.N.N.Nair M.A., Ph.D has specialized in English Literature. He also holds L.L.B., and a postgraduate Diploma in Management. Besides, he is a  First Class Diploma Holder in Electrical Engineering.

Dr. Nair retired as General Manager of  Videsh Sanchar Nigam  Limited (VSNL), the International  Telecommunication Organisation of India, in 2002.

He is presently the Trustee-Secretary of the Indian Development Foundation [IDF], an NGO of nearly three decade’s standing in the field of eradication of Leprosy in India.

Dr. Nair’s other works are:

(1)A Bed of Roses – a poem based on Mahabharata; published in Malaysia (1987)

(2) The Story of India’s Overseas Communications (1987) – Released by Union Minister for
Communications, Mr Vasant Sathe in Mumbai
     
(3) Back to the Dots…                   (1996) – Released by the Union Minister for Communication
Mr.Beni Prasad Verma in New Delhi

      (4) Saankarasaagaram – English Translation of Malayalam Poem by Mr. Krishnan Parapally’s
work on Adi Sankara, Published by Bhartiya Vidya Bhavan (2002)

      (5) The Story of Videsh Sanchar – Released by Mr. Ratan Tata in Mumbai in  Jan. 2003

            He is involved in various other literary activities as well.
 

Daivadasakam - an interpretation by Muttathu Sudha

Sadashiva Darsanam

 1
Counted from the sensible smell of
All who eat food
From the melted and swallowed
Of the thin earth;
Fall in love, standing and melting
In penance at the tip of the heart
Pressed and licking, then and now every where
And nowhere, shining in the very attractive
To look at the charming pitcher,
Will it bloom?
This is filled with blood: a cloud of lovely hood,
Nowhere now and then, here or there in a very
Good auspicious occasion.
 2
At the stage by consuming black cloud
And turned darker at the close of a day
The tuft of matted curl hair
And seen the black neck though late;
Be merciful, with tender birth and the brilliant forehead,
Where overflows the tank, the pretty pitcher,
A mystic hut of brightness,
Carried by the noble elephant,
Ganapathi, the most revered son of Shiva
Carrying in his trunk,
And occupying the prime seat wherever!
 3
The boiling and overflowing ocean of sorrow,
At once crossed by swimming and reached
At the other side and saw you alone
There stood and behaved in a licentious manner
Around begging and you are showering rituals
And utterances upon whom I adorn
On the head of almighty Shiva!
  4
Saturn, one who moves slowly
And repeatedly rising
And rising, coming and standing,
And eating day by day killing two balls
By name, sun and moon,
Appear surrounded by twinkling stars;
As the innumerable people think of all,
Hail, the Primordial God,
He, who dances profusely overflowing the mind.
 5
Oh Shiva, please think you and I
Are one and the same; I have no other desire in
Attaining anything else than you;
This comes to my hand;  time is never still
Torn by grief and tortured by fear,
Trouble always on the boil; excluding Shiva,
If I think you are the way and
All other things here and there
Are falling in distress.                                     
 6
If  I think over,
Oh Shiva, you alone is who adorns
The crescent moon, a shade without hue;
I have no other God except Shiva.
You are the golden lamp
Like the ocean hip-chain of the earth,
Which stood shivering in
Various shades of midnight majesty in snow.
A mighty one in an illimitable sky;
All these are counted from mind
And numbering is licking
Oh, the extremely slender body
Which comes with you in compassion.
 7
There are six Gods, eternal
Oh Shiva, shining as farmyard,
The heavenly river Ganga, snake, skull, crescent moon;
The moon without blemish,
Shining black mole on the sky,
 Red matted hair in brilliance,
The face which became panic
On seeing the beauty of the anklet,
This is like a trembling full bloomed flower stem,
A romantic loneliness:
Bright was the day, and blue the firmament,
Sun has sent his gold streams down
To please every flower with his warmness:
You kindly be affectionate to me and tell.
  8
Kindly, the soil, water and the mingled winds
Came in the heaven shining then and there
Which is the body smeared with smell
For which you sprouts
And there is no fame for the gem
Nor there is any dispute or agony
In those quarrels.     
  9
By lying in this and weeping, living
And spending my days
I have nothing more pitiable,
Than a moaning life;
On pondering what?
 The green promises of my youth:
I can suffer any disappointment;
The sorrow is emerging,
Usual aches and pains,
A thing of melancholy clay dance,
The wheel of becoming
The Emperor who worn
The mind of crown with a plant
 With sweet-smelling tender
Leaves of wisdom
 May be pleased to allow
Overflowing the wisdom pitcher;
 You dance, wearing the flowing celestial river.
                                 10
The pigs went away, no beautiful swan is seen
 Coming by flying or swimming nearby
On your hair, you took as on to-day
 The fire mountain;
Swallowed me with the whole body curtain
 Immediately in a cosmic dance,
A leaf torn off life and die
It is something anyone can do:
I pray, Shiva, leader,
I bow my head and salute;
An eternity by term
Obeisance to you.*
Chidambara lingam* 1887 A.D.
   Chidambara lingam* 1887 A.D.
 
1
The face of the Supreme Being
Worshipped by the undying celestials as a lingam,
Pertaining to birth, old age
And killer of death as a lingam,
The trick of averting from
Religious rite as a lingam,-
The sun, moon, and fire are
Parts of verses written to worship Shiva;
The sun is Lord Shiva’s right eye;
The moon his left eye, the eternal spirits
And fire in the third eye;
On His forehead;
Protect us the smooth charming sun Chidambara lingam.
2
At the bottom of a celestial tree known
As kalpaka (coconut) tree which grants
All wishes is well-installed as a lingam,
It is of destroyer of god of love,
Hero in the epic Mahabharatha,
Installed as a lingam;
The destroyer of multitude of evil natured
Like clouds with fury as a lingam;
Protect us the smooth charming sun Chidambara lingam.
3
Subramanya and Ganeswara are in imagination as a lingam,
The heavenly flatterers, and musicians as a lingam,
Oh Shiva, in the middle of night at the silver mountains,
Are you not adorn, on the head, an exclusive ornament,
A hissing snake?
The visible reminder of invisible energy,
A noble serpent, as a lingam;
Protect us the smooth charming sun Chidambara lingam.
4
The Samba, who is inseparable from the Mother Goddess
Sadasiva and Sankara as a lingam,
He, who gives all desirable boons,
It is highly beautiful as a lingam.
The incomparable God of worshipping
With the mind as a lingam;
Protect us the smooth charming sun Chidambara lingam.
5
The filth of anger is like a wild fire, and
The wild fury lost its flame, as a lingam;
The ornament of sea-waves as a lingam;
The unclean gun-cotton which sheds
Light to the setting sun as a lingam;
Protect us the smooth charming sun Chidambara lingam.
6
The brilliance of light shade of shining
Of eight manifest forms as a lingam,
The blossoming of Lord Shiva of heaven as a lingam,
The conduct which ruled the nice people
Experienced as a lingam;
Protect us the smooth charming sun Chidambara lingam.
7
The torturer of God of death,
Who circumvents the age,
A pretty one appears as a lingam,
The destroyer of evil thoughts
Of God of love’s beautiful body as a lingam;
The life-breath which exists
In the heart of animals living on the earth
As a life force lingam;
Protect us the smooth charming sun Chidambara lingam.
8
The well nourished mature and lively
Seat of Chidambara lingam,
On understanding it as in the heart,
What is our life? The seeds of eternity;
It is like the recollection of eight verses
In the mind and those eight forms attained
The identity of Lord Shiva !
9
**It is a brilliant lingam adorned by Shiva
Beautiful garland of heavenly flowers as a lingam
The churning- rod in the churning of the Ocean of Milk,
As a crown of lingam
Protect us the smooth charming sun Chidambara lingam.
* Chidambaram is a place in Tamil Nadu, India,
where there is a famous Temple of Shiva.
The lingam of Shiva is in a human form, the King of dance.
Lingam.(noun.)A phallic symbol in Hinduism, used in the
worship of God Shiva.
New Webster’s Dictionary.
Also Linga.
Sree Krishna Darsanam

 

(Sree Krishna Darsanam)

On earth the attitude to do away with determination

Became a particular condition of mind

With the abandonment to do and run away;

Then the earth also disappeared in truth.

The brilliance of beaming lamp-flame

Became beautiful everywhere

Around and it has dissolved

In the murmurings of ambrosia;

The curtain of illusion was then lifted up,

Then the brilliance of grain jewel

Worn on the chest,

A gem from the ‘ocean of milk’

From heaven and worn by Vishnu on his chest;

And the beautiful flower like body

Similar to a blue flower of the iron-wood tree

Is a divine paradise of :

Monygreevan’s merrymaking .
Shiva Prasada Panchakam

Shiva Prasada Panchakam

1

Oh, God Shiva, Shankara,

Annihilator of birth grief,

Save always

The children of Lord Brahma in obeisance,

With the folded hands always:

Oh, my most beloved universal soul,

Who plays the earthly drama with loud alarms?

Situate in me and protect us.

2

God is always in relation

With the body,

From his starry seat;

Children are the life’s

Reproductive organs

Of a flower steady,

Which are all thoughts undesirable?

By removing those foes to man and God

From the mind

So as to avert sticking

By falling in the black painted

Waves of the blue ocean.

3

Oh Shiva, with worth in abundance,

So goldenly in moon light

You are put up in a grave yard

Where owls have awakened;

Afflicted, smeared with and stumbled down:

You settle, filled up with

Plenty of drinking water now and then;

And empty the petty drinks

And make it full of yours energy and situate

At the inner side of the bottom part of the cup.

4

Oh, most merciful, Shiva

When the evening cloud

Was showering rain into the earth

Though deep but not fathomless;

The earth was beautiful

In smile with saint-like glances

Like souls that balanced joy and pain;

And so your neck became seat of a black hue;

The trembling hues,

This brief tragedy of the flesh is removed

Like a rope of sand; moving smoothly

Like the wind over the grass or among the trees;

There is a column; but there is boundary line

For the black sea also like the rain clouds;

A pile of wind, amid the shades of night

But there is no terminal for being proud.

5

Oh Shiva! You washed the hands after kicking away

The sweet nut of Cupids pleasure

This darts the tongues of flames

Bestowing on me kindness

The pure salvation became ripe fruits

And get incited to flow

Between her lips like rain of pearls,

Oh, golden flag, with all its burning stars,

You give me thy feet.
Daiva Dasakam

(Daiva Dasakam)

                    1

Oh God, you guard us

Without leaving us astray here from your grip

Of guidance with the right index finger of your hand;

In order to cut across the earthly blue ocean

Your feet is the steamer

In which you are the sailor,

Invisible.

2

If the omnipotent

Which is one by one touched and counted,

Finished and continued with them

Those are in existence,

Like the range of eye-sight

Not gloomy in the eyes, to look far on

Should not be throbbing in your mind

Where you can feel that God is everywhere

And the earth is our sweet home!

3

Without scarcity of food, dress,

Home and other items

Such as smiles spontaneous

Providing us so as to protect

And you, who alone makes us noble,

And one for us is the venerable .

4

Like the ocean, wave, wind

And depth, the calm and serene

Bottom of the colourful ocean

Similar to our mind;

Illusion of a magic,

Thou, glory in that

And the awareness of you

May be merged in my wings.

5.

You are the creation

And he, who became the creator

And the countless creations;

Oh God! You, yourself became

The instruments for creation.

 

6

Are you not the illusion,

And also the magician

And he, who smiles on delusion;

Are you not the noble person?

Who, on removing the illusion

Grants us deeper communion

With God, the most merciful one.

 

7

You are truth, knowledge and value,

You are the present, the past and the future

If remembered, you are nothing else

Than the spoken-words, if one recollects you.

 

8

In the inner region

As well as in the outer region,

The thickly existing grandeur

Of glory of your feet;

We are praising you,

Oh God, you, hail.

9

Oh, Lord Shiva, hail

The devoted asylum of down trodden;

Oh God, hail, the bliss of consciousness

Hail, the setting sun in the ocean of kindness.

10

In the fathomless ocean of your luster

All of us may be immersed,

Hail on every day,

With wings of healing in perpetual salvation,

Hail, reside in happiness.
 

An Interpretation by Swami Muni Nrayana Prasad

KOLATIRESA STAVAM

 

Composed in 1893 just after the installation of the Siva Temple at Kolathukara near Trivandrum.This was written at the request of the devotees who had gathered there.Madanartta is the metre of this Malayalam work.

                     1     
 
Considerate always to those
Who approach, treating you
Ask the one on whom even time depends;
And unfavorable to the unrighteous
Are you, the one of fore-head –eye.
Please protect me properly,
O the Supreme Lord
Residing at the kolathukara Temple

                        2

He who causes emergence of the world
From within, within a moment;
He who constantly rules it
Simply by gazing;
He who is amused by such games
Should protect me properly.
O the Supreme Lord
Residing at the Kolathukara Temple

                      3                     

Though the one all underlying substratum
That fills everywhere,
You assume this kind of visible
From for the sake adoration,
You, being such, should free me
From indolence by granting me
The boon of transcental awareness
O the Supreme Lord
Residing at the Kolathukara Temple.

                        4

If it so happens that
Any of these senses such as the eyes
Thoughtlessly goes wrong in its path,
That very moment, please let me
Wisely think of the one sat
O the Supreme Lord
Residing at the Kolathukara Temple

                     5

Let my limbs such as hands and feet
Not do any unvirtuous deed
Let them not be tempted to do
Anything forbidden in an improper manner,
O Lord, residing at the Kolathukara temple.

                     6

Please avoid sickness and other afflictions,
O the desire-fulfiller the destroyer of desires,
O the ocean of compassion,
O the happiness-maker, please give me
Happiness with all compassion,
O the Lord residing at the kolathukara Temple

                      7

Let not penury-related dreadful sufferings
Approach me, and from me banish
Haughtiness always.
And grant me the lucky opportunity
To live in the vicinity of the virtuous,
O the Lord residing at the Kolathukara Temple.

                       8

Forgive all my sinful acts
That I might have committed
Owing to my own flick mind.
Helping me to avoid all the griefs,
Please possess me, and moreover,
Let me eternally remember your
Holy feet that would obviate all sins,
O the Lord residing at the Kolathukara Temple.

                              9

Even Brahma and Vishnu
Feel your boundless grandeur
To be immensely immeasurable.
Who else then is there to describe it?
I was only giving vent to
A few of my humble aspirations;
O the Lord residing at the Kolathukara Temple.

                              10

These meaningless incoherent
Words of mine are like
The lisps of an infant
In distress, but knows
No means of expressing it.
You, along with the Mother, (like a mother)
Is my sole refuge now
O my Supreme Lord
Residing at the Kolathukara Temple.
 

An Interpretation by Swami Muni Nrayana Prasad

CIDAMBARASTAKAM
(Eight Verses on Cidambaram or Consciousness-space)

Linga is the phallus symbol, the form Siva is traditionally worshipped in. It literally means any ‘mark’ or ‘sign’.
         Cidambaram is the name of the town in the state of Tamilnadu in India. The only temple where Siva is worshipped as the chief deity in a human form, as Nataraj (The king of Dance).
         ‘Cidambaram’ literally means ‘Consciousness-space’ or ‘mental space’. Consciousness in essence, Siva constantly dances on the stage or space that is himself. This dance appears as the ever-changing world.
           Cidambara linga means “The symbolic sign worshipped at cidambaram” or “The symbolic sign conceived in the mental space”.
            Similar in all respects to the lingashtakam of sankara, this work in Sanskrit in the Dodhakam metre.
            Guru, once, at the request of his disciple Sivalinga swami made a visit to cidambara temple. The piece was dictated to the disciple just after the visit. The date could be between 1887 and’97.

                         1
The linga adored even by Brahma and other gods,
The linga that puts an end to birth, old-age and death.
The linga that brings in happiness and rids us of all karmas
May that Cidambara-linga benignly protect us!
                         
                        2
The linga well-installed at the bottom of the Kalpaka1 tree;
The linga that stands firm in the battle to destroy Eros;
The linga that puts an end to the entire host of the evil-natured-
May that Cidambara-linga benignly protect us!

                         3
The linga constantly meditated on by both Skanda2 and
Ganesvara:
The linga always sung in praise of by Kinnars3 and caranas:
The linga well-beautiful by snakes-
May that Cidambara-linga benignly protect us!

                         4
The linga that manifests as Samba, Sadasiva and Sankara4
The charming linga that gives all desirable boons
The benevolent linga that is incomparable-
May that Cidambara-linga benignly protect us!

                          5

The linga that becomes the fire to burn up
The filthy forest of the (Age of Kali):
The linga that has water-waves for ornaments:
The linga that lends brightness to the evening sun-
May that Cidambara-linga benignly protect us!

                           6
The linga that shines visibly with eight manifest forms;
The ever-growing linga of the lord of the Worlds;
The linga that habitually protects the virtuous-
May that Cidambara-linga benignly protect us!

                            7

The linga that, while killing the god of death, appears lovably
Pleasing;
The linga that splinters the body of Eros in to pieces;
The linga that exists as liveliness in living beings-
May that Cidambara-linga benignly protect us!

                            8
Those of matured understanding,
Perceiving thus this Cidambara linga,
Contemplatively ponder on these eight verses
Ineffable and unimaginable,
And they attain the Eight-bodied one (Siva)!

Notes

1. Kalpaka is the mythological wish-fulfilling tree in the garden of Indra, the chief of gods, the inhabitants of heaven.
2. Skanda and Ganesvara are the other names of subrahmanya and ganpati, the two sons of Siva and Parvati.
3. Kinnaras and caranas are mythological beings inhabiting heaven. They are celestial singers. The former have a human figure and a horse’s head.
4. Samba, Sadasiva and Sankara are three different forms in which Siva is conceived. Samba means ‘always united with the mother or Devi’, sadasiva means ‘always auspicious’; Ankara means’ the one who brings in calmness’.

An Interpretation by Swami Muni Nrayana Prasad

PINDA NANDI (Foetal Gratitude)

 

Assumed to be written by Guru when he was staying at Aruvippuram around 1885. Vasantatilakam is its meter and Malayalam, the language.
                                  
                                      1

 O the Abode of Glorious Qualities,
  Who else but you, the kind one,
 Did nourish in to life
 With exceedingly careful love
 The entire foetus of this humble self, when in womb!
 Everything happens as ordained by you----
  Knowing thus, this servant of yours
Surrenders everything up to you,
 O the Bringer of Happiness!

                                    2

With earth, water, fire,
Air and space, put in to a crucible,
In their proper proportion,
And lighting them with a fire,
You protected this foetus
Of mine from the oppressions
Of an evil deity, and nourished it
Then, in your nectarine immortality
O the Bringer of Happiness

                                     3

It is not only mere micro-organisms
Confined to rocks that do proclaim
The greatness of your Grace;
The chief god that resides
Within the l0otus (Brahma), and all else
Do grow out from within this (Grace).

                                   4

No kinsmen, no strength, no wealth,
Was there---hoe could this
Ever grow up then, O picturesque Marvel!
All this is my Master’s sporting---
Knowing this is not superstitious.
That I may have this perspective
Do grant your Grace,
O the Bringer of Happiness!

                                      5

For months full four and five
With eyes constantly on me,
It was you that let me grow,
Ever warding off death’s hands
I thus let pass my time
Remaining within the womb.
Recalling it, now I weep,
Listen, O the Bringer of Happiness!

                                           6

Semen indeed it was, mixed with ovum-blood,
Along with pure sound attaining maturity,
That assumed my form
That lay at a mid-region.
No mother was there,
And no father too.
So raised by you alo9ne, my sole parent,
Is all that I am here today

                                             7

It is all the better that
All the sufferings of those days
Are forgotten forever,
Revived had they been,
I would this  very day
Fall and perish in their flames, alas!
You, my golden Father,
Alone did then provide me with
These five sense-outlets,
And therefore is it that
I am aware of all this now,
O the Bringer of Happiness!

                                             8

My mother bore me as
A heavy burden within her
And with a tender melting heart
And breathing vainly many a sigh,
With great pain did she bring me forth
To lie here wailing like a jackal.
Deign for once to tell me, Lord,
What does all this mean!
O the Bringer of Happiness!

                                                   9

Well aware you are of all this,
O the Abode of Glorious Qualities!
Why then should this humble one
Relate all this again to you?
Do banish, party, all miseries.
No one will there be to help me
If you keep away from me.
O the Saviour who comes mounted on a bull!

An interpretation by C K Balakrishnan

Athmopadesh Sathakam- C.K.Balakrishnan ( 1-25)

100 Teachings of Sree Narayana Guru.

Introduction

History has it that Great men come on this earth to save the striving humanity at the juncture when but, for their advent, the humans would slide into the depth of degeneration due to the influence and impact of moral degeneration and the consequent negligence of human values. World has ever witnessed the glorious pursuits of those personalities among whom Sree Narayana Guru of Kerala is one. Born in an unknown small village, that is Chembazhandi Guru lived like a beacon light to the whole world.His whole life was dedicated to the cause of uplifting the weaker and neglected sections of the society whose living condition was worse than that of primitive men. Sree Narayana Guru was basically a spiritualist with no discard to the worldly needs that help us accomplish our duties towards our dependants.
Popularisation of the teachings of Guru will go a long way in bringing about peace and harmony among our people, which will ultimately contribute to the integrity and solidarity of our nation.
In this small book, I have tried to unfold the masterminded ideas of Sree Narayana Guru, spread out in “Atmopadesa Satakam” which explains in 100 verses how man can live peaceful life in perfect unison with the human society as a whole and at last merge with “OM” the supreme abode of existence.
C.K.Balakrishnan, M.A.

Atmopadesa Satakam

(1)
അറിവിലുമേറിയറിഞ്ഞിടുന്നവന്‍ ത-
ന്നരുവിലുമൊത്തു പുറത്തുമുജ്ജ്വലിക്കും
കരുവിനു കണ്ണുകള്ഞ്ചുമുള്ളിടക്കി-
ത്തെരുതെരെ വീണുവണങ്ങിയോതിടേണം.
 
Arivilumeriyarinnidunnavan ta-
nnuruvilumottu purattumujjvalikkum-
Karuvinu kannukal anchumullatakki-
Tterutere vinu vanangiyothitenam.

The cosmic mind is the knower of the phenomenal universe. As the universe is remaining within the cosmic mind, cosmic mind pervades within and without a unit body. To realize and reach the exalted state of cosmic mind, one has to surrender  oneself to a great master and serve him subduing the sense organs, and the Master so propitiated and satisfied by the sincere submission of the seeker, will commence His teachings.

(2)
കരണവുമിന്ദ്രിയവും  കളേബരംതൊ-
ട്ടറിയുമനേകജഗത്തുമോര്‍ക്കിലെല്ലാം
പരവെളിതന്നിലുയര്‍ന്ന ഭാനുമാന്‍ തന്‍
തിരുവുരുവനു തിരഞ്ഞു തേറിടേണം

Karanavumindriyavum kalebaram to-
ttariyumaneka jagattumorkkil ellam
Paraveli tanniluyarnna  bhanuman tan-
tiruvuruvanu tirannu teritenam.

All the knowledge collected in the mind through the means of the five sense organs, in the physical body, is nothing but the transformed manifestation of the Divine entity, that has risen on the horizon of the pure consciousness. The moon, the sun, the stars, the galaxies, in their countless numbers, moving in an elliptical order in the endless span of the space, all are the solidified forms of pure cosmic consciousness, perceived in the periphery of mind, and intellect; and to attain true knowledge of the absolute, one has to search within.

(3)
വെളിയിലിരുന്നു വിവര്‍ത്തമിങ്ങു കാണും
വെളി മുതലായ വിഭൂതിയഞ് ചുമോര്‍ത്താല്‍
ജലനിധിതന്നിലുയര്‍ന്നിടും തരങ്ഗാ-
വലിയതുപോലെയഭേദമായ് വരേണം.

Veliyilirunnu vivarthaminnu kanum
Velimutalaya vibhutiyancumorttal
Jalanidhi tannil uyarnnitum taranga-
valiyatupole yabhedamay varenam.
 
The manifested world of objects being projected from the infinite consciousness in the forms of the five fundamental factors, i.e., Ether(Akas), Air(Vayu), Fire(Agni), Liquid(Jala), and Solid(Prithwi) are like the waves (tides) in the ocean, and both the waves and the ocean are nothing but water. Similarly, the manifested world of objects are the different forms and the names of the supreme consciousness; and this knowledge will be kindled in those who contemplate on the singularity(Advaita) of the supreme truth.

(4)
അറിവുമറിഞ്ഞിടുമര്‍ത്ഥവും പുമാന്‍ത-
ന്നറിവുമൊരാദി മഹസ്സു മാത്രമാകും;
വിരളത് വിട്ടു വിളങ്ങുമമ്മഹത്താ-
മറിവിലമര്‍ന്നഥൂ മാത്രമായിടേണം.

Arivumarinnitumartthavum pumanta-
nnarivum oradi mahassu matramakum;
viralata vittu vilangumamahatta-
marivilamarnnatu matramayitenam.

The subjective “I” knowing the objective world outside, and the objects being experienced as existing separate from the experiencing “I” are all one and the same Penumbra of the supreme consciousness, the absolute entity, which illumines the entire phenomenal world of plurality and this supreme consciousness alone is in the beginning. To become that alone is the purpose for which the Unit Jeeva is awarded with the human frame.

(5)
ഉലകരുറങ്ങിയുണര്‍ന്നു ചിന്ത ചേയ്യും
പലതുമിതൊക്കെയുമുറ്റു പാര്‍ത്തു നില്ക്കും-
വില മതിയാത വിളക്കുദിക്കയും പിന്‍-
പൊലികയുമി, ല്ലിതു കണ്ടു പോയിടേണം.

Ulakar urangiyunarnnu cintaceyyum
Palatumitokkeyu muttuparttu nilkkum-
Vilamatiyata vilakkudikkayum pin-
Polikayumillitu kantu poyitenam.

Human life is confined to three kinds of experiences or stages of consciousness namely waking, sleeping and dreaming. Each of the stages is experienced as existing independent of the other two. In other words each level of experience, is true in that particular condition, with the witnessing “I” as the subjective counterpart. So the witnessing entity, is the essence  of our real existence and this subjective counterpart in our personality is the real precious lamp which is shedding light resulting in the exposure of our existence. This lamp is ever there, with no rising or setting and so one has to leave this world only after realizing this light.

(6)
ഉണരണമിന്നിയുറങ്ങണം ഭുജിച്ചീ-
ടണമശനം പുണരണമെന്നിവണ്ണം
അണയുമനേകല്പമാകയാലാ-
രുണരുവതുള്ളൊരു നിര്‍വികാരരൂപം!

Unaranam minniyurangeetanam bhujichee-
tanam asanam punarenam ennivannam
anayumaneka vikalpamakayala-
runaruvatulloru nirvikara rupam?
                   
Our body, mind and intellect are utilized only for the purpose of satisfying the needs of lower impulses or vasanas like sleeping, eating and indulging in sex. We go for sleeping at night, being tired of the strains afflicted on us during day time, just to wake up next morning to carry on the activities left unfinished the other day. We are all moving in this chain of karma, meeting with thousands and thousands of births and deaths, according to the influence of vasanas embedded in unit minds. So long as our life is led in the black out territory of ignorance, who are there to realize the unagitated nature of the self.

(7)
ഉണരരുതിന്നിയുറങ്ങിടാതിരുന്നീ-
ടണമറിവായിതിന്നയോഗ്യനെന്നാല്‍
പ്രണവമുണര്‍ന്നുപിറപ്പൊഴിഞ്ഞുവാഴും
മുന്നിജനസേവയില്‍ മൂര്‍ത്തി നിര്‍ത്തിടേണം.

Unararut inniyurangitatirunee-
tanamarivay itinninnayogyanennal
pranavamunarnnu pirapozhinju vazhum-
munijana sevayil murthi nirthitenam.

A sincere seeker should not waste his time by reveling only in the conscious layer (Kamamaya Kosa) of the mind, nor should he be in the dark night of the soul; and if it is found not possible to keep detached from these two states of mind, one should devote one’s time to render service to a realized master who has conquered death; and this act of service will lead a devotee towards attaining the power of concentration, which is a preparation for the higher spiritual pursuit.

(8)
ഒളിമുതലാംപഴമഞ്ചുമുണ്ടുനാറും
നളികയിലേറിനയേനമാറിയാടും
കിളികളെയഞ്ചുമരിഞ്ഞുകീഴ്മറിക്കും
വെളിവുരുവേന്തിയകം വിളങ്ങിടേണം.

Olimutalam pazhamanchumundu narum-
nalikayileri nayena mariyatum-
kilikale yanchu marinju keezmarikkum-
velivuruventi yakam vilangitenam.
                       
The cause behind human reluctance for being introvert is the power of the sense organs which pull the mind outward towards their respective pabula. The aspirant has to subdue these five violent disturbing birds to keep the mind glowing with light from the cosmic consciousness.

(9)
ഇരുപുറവുംവരുമാറവസ്ഥയെപ്പൂ-
ത്തൊരുകൊടിവന്നുപടര്‍ന്നുയര്‍ന്നുമേവും
തരുവിനടിക്കുതപസ്സുചെയ്തുവാഴും
നരനു വരാ നരകം നിനച്ചിടേണം

Irupuravum varumaravasthayeppu-
ttoru kodivannu patarnnuyarnnumevum
taruvinatikku tapassucheytu vazhum-
naranu vara narakam ninachitenam.

Anything created in this universe is subject to six stages of existence namely, birth, being, growing, evolving, waning, and vanishing. Both the internal and the external worlds are covered by these vasana vines; and until we cut asunder these weeds, it is impossible to see the true tree. One who meditates on the “Kundalini” lying dormant like a serpent in the mooladhara charka need not have the fear of being tempted to commit sins and go to hell.
 
(10)
'ഇരുളിലിരിപ്പവനാര്? ചൊല്കനീ' യെ-
ന്നൊരുവനുരപ്പതുകേട്ടുതാനുമേവം
അറിവതിനായവനോടു'നീയുമാരെ'-
ന്നരുളിമിതിന്‍ പ്രതിവാക്യമേകമാകും.

“Irulil irippavanaru? Cholka ni” ye-
nnoruvan urappatu kettu tanumevam
arivatinay avanodu “niyumar”e-
nnarulumitin prativakyam ekamakum.

While a man from outside is asking another one sitting in a dark room “ who are you, tell me” and the one sitting in the room is asking the same question to the other the answer from both of them will be the same, as “I am” “I am”. Though we are all having different forms and names the subjective “I” who is witnessing the objects is one and the same.

(11)
അഹമഹമെന്നരുളുന്നതിക്കെയാരാ-
യുകിലകമേപലതല്ലതേകമാകും;
അകലുമഹന്തയനേകമാകയാലീ
തുകയിലഹം പൊരുളും തുടര്‍ന്നിടുന്നു.

“Ahamaham” ennarulunna tokke ara-
yukil akame Palathatalla atekamakum;
akalumahanta yaneka makayali
tukayilaham porulum tutarnnidunnu.
 
The subjective entity which illumines body mind and intellect is one and the same in all of us whereas the ‘ego’ in us in different colours according to the difference of the vasanas creates the sense of plurality among human beings, inspite of the fact that even this ‘ego’ is illumined by the Master subjective ‘I’ in us.

(12)
തൊലിയുമെലുമ്പുമലംദുരന്തമ:
കലളുമേന്തുമഹന്തയൊന്നുകാണ്‍ക!
പൊലിയുമിതന്യപൊലിഞ്ഞുപൂര്‍ണ്ണമാകും
വലിയുമിതന്യ വരാ വരം തരേണം.

Toliyum elumpu malam duranta mantah:-
kalakalumentum ahantayonnu kanka!
Poliyum itannya polinju poorna makum
Valiyorahanta vara varam tarenam.

The human body is made of dirty substances like skin, bones and other foul smelling elements, which bear no value at all, rather they cause misery. Nor have we much to be proud of our mind which tends to fall in the laps of lower propensities. Until the vain ignorance on the attributed importance of our body mind and intellect is burned to ashes without any vestige, one will not be elevated to the altar of the Big Cosmic ‘I’ feeling. For this elevation may “I” be awarded with a boon.

(13)
ത്രിഗുണമയം തിരുനീറണിഞ്ഞൊരീശ-
ന്നകമലരിട്ടു വണങ്ങിയക്ഷമാറി
സകലമഴിഞ്ഞു തണിഞ്ഞു കേവലത്തിന്‍
മഹമയുമറ്റു മഹസ്സിലാണിടേണം.

Trigunamayam tiruneer aninjo reesann-
akamalarittu vanangi yakshamari
sakalamazhinju taninju kevalathin-
mahimayumattu mahassilanitenam.

We may invoke Lord Siva wearing ashes in three lines on his forehead which indicate His presence with His consort Sree Parvathy, who is the embodiment of three gunas (qualities) and who influences Lord Siva as His operative force. We may offer our mind as a beautiful flower to Him; and we shall be liberated from all the bondages which were created by the Prakrithi. Let us even break the bondage of sentient principle of the prakrithi and get dissolved in the majesty of the pure consciousness.

(14)
ത്രിഭുവനസീമ കടന്നു തിങ്ങി വിങ്ങും
ത്രിപുടി മുടിഞ്ഞു തെളിഞ്ഞിടുന്ന ദീപം
കടയതിക്കു കരസ്ഥമാകുവീലെ-
ന്നുപനിഷദുക്തിരഹസ്യമോര്‍ത്തിടേണം
                               
Tribhuvana seema kadannu thingi vingum-
triputi mudinju telinjidunna deepam
kapata yathikku karastha makuveele-
nnupanishad ukti rahasya morthitenam.
                               
The light which lies beyond Tripudi, i.e. the experiencer, the experiencing and the experienced, and shines in its great and massive effulgence beyond the three dimensional world will not come to a pseudo saint or anyone who is not a sincere and ardent seeker, as is expounded, in the Upanishads in their secret lines.

(15)
പരയുടെ പാലു നുകര്‍ന്ന ഭാഗ്യവാന്മാര്‍-
ക്കൊരു പതിനായിരമാണ്ടൊരല്പനേരം;
അറിവപരപ്രകൃതിക്കധീനമായാ-
ലരനൊടിയായിരമാണ്ടുപോലെ തോന്നും.

Parayute palu nukarnna bhagya vanmar-
Kkoru patinayira mant oralpa neram;
Arivapara prakruti kkadheena mayal
Ara noti yayira mantu pole tonnum.

Those who have drunk the nectar of wisdom are fortunate. To them, elapse of ten thousand years will  be equal to passing of split of second, because such men have crossed the bounds of time. And those who are caught up in the grip of ignorance will feel a split of a second so long as thousand years. It is the attitude of human mind that extends or shortens the temporal factor.

(16)
അധികവിശാലമരുപ്രദേശമൊന്നായ്
നദി പെരുകുന്നതുപോലെ വന്നു നാദം
ശ്രുതികളിള്‍ വീണു തുറക്കുമക്ഷിയെന്നും
യതമിയലും യതിവര്യനായിടേണം.
                                
Adhika vishala maru pradesha monnay
nadi perukunnathupole vannu nadam
srutikalil veenu turakkum akshiyennum
yatamiyalum yativaryyan aayitenam.
 
As though a sudden gush of water inundates a vast barren land of a desert from a nearby river, the great sound of “OM” rushes to the mind of a “Sadhaka” (spiritual practitioner, a Yogi) and such a mind  so flooded with the sound of cosmic entity gets into the supreme awareness (Anubhoothi). By the practice of Raja Yoga the power of Kundalini is aroused, and as a result, the individual mind becomes so expanded, as to comprehend a glimpse of cosmic consciousness. To attain this lofty status, and qualify to be a Yathi or Yogi, one has to strictly observe Yama and Niyama.   

(17)
അഴലെഴുമഞ്ചിതളാര്‍ന്നു രണ്ടു തട്ടായ-
ച്ചുഴലുമനാദി വിളക്കു തൂക്കിയാത്മാ
നിഴലുരുവായെരിയുന്നു നെയ്യതോ മുന്‍-
പഴകിയ വാസന, വര്‍ത്തി വൃത്തിയത്രേ.

Azhalezhum anchitalarnnu randu thattay
chuzhalum anadi vilakku tooki yatma
nizhal uruvay eriyunnu neyyato, mun-
pazhakiya vasana, varthi vrittiyatre.

 To exist in this world everything must have a base. Humans exist on two bases, sthula and sukshma. Human existence is hanging like a lamp with two holdings, viz., physical and mental. It is the five fundamental factors viz., Solid, Liquid, Luminous, Aereal and Ethereal that create the structure of physical body. The Jeevatma, the vital force, burning in the human body  has no separate form or existence, rather it is a shadow of Paramatma, the supreme consciousness. The sense organs are the channels of the lamp through which the wicks are burning using the oil of our own respective vasanas. This great light is ever there, it is without beginning or end.

(18)
അഹമിരുളല്ലിരുളാകിലന്ധരായ നാ-
മഹമഹമെന്നറിയാതിരുന്നിടേണം;
അറിവതിനാലഹമന്ധകാരമല്ലെ-
ന്നറിവതിനിങ്ങനെയാര്‍ക്കുമോതിടേണം.
                              
Ahamirulalli; irulakil andharay na-
mahamaham ennariyatirunnitenam;
arivatinal aham andhakaramalle-
nnarivatiningane yarkkum othitenam.

Had I been an entity of ignorance or darkness , I would not have been able to know that “I am” or “ I exist”. By the very fact that I know that “ I exist” I come to the conclusion that I am “the consciousness”. By securing this advanced state of knowledge about our own consciousness we have the duty to teach others also to draw them to this supreme knowledge, that :I am Consciousness”. and not matter.

(19)
അടിമുടിയറ്റുമതുണ്ടിതുണ്ടതുണ്ടെ-
ന്നടിയിടുമാദിമസത്തയുള്ളതെല്ലാം;
ജഡമിതു സര്‍വമനിത്യമാം; ജലത്തിന്‍
വടിവിനെ വിട്ടു തരങ്ഗമന്യമാമോ?

Ati, muti,yattam, athuntu, ithund, athunte-
nnadiyidum adima sattayullathellam;
Jadamitu sarvam anithyamam; jalathin-
Vativine vittu tarangam annyamamo?

All the pluralistic world of objects within the scope of time and space are inert things which are subjected to the law of change and ultimate disappearance (destruction). How can the waves of ocean with their temporary upsurge claim to be having a separate existence apart from the ocean? Both the waves and the ocean are nothing but water and so also material objects are matamorphosed forms of consciousness. Therefore, it is foolish to have a debate or argument, on the importance of the specialties of mundane things. In essence all the parts belong to the same absolute.

(20)                               
ഉലകിനു വേറൊരു സത്തയില്ലതുണ്ടെ-
ന്നുലകരുരപ്പതു സര്‍വ്വമൂഹഹീനം;
ജളനു വിശേയമെന്നു തോന്നിയാലും
നലമിയലും മലര്‍മാല നാഗമാമോ?

Ulakinu veroru satta yilla; atunde-
nnulakar urappatu sarvam ooha heenam
jalanu vilesayamennu tonniyalum
nalamiyalum malarmala nagamamo?

Except the supreme consciousness that is at work as creator, sustainer, and dissolver, the world is being perceived by us has no value of its own and to attach any value is illogical also. If at all an agitated unintelligent person mistakes a garland of flowersfor a snake the garland will remain a garland with no change at all, the cause of mistake being the foolishness of the perceiver.

(21)
പ്രിയമൊരു ജാതിയിതെന്‍ പ്രിയം, ത്വദീയ-
പ്രിയമപരപ്രിയമെന്നനേകമായി
പ്രിയവിഷയം പ്രതി വന്നിടും ഭ്രമം; തന്‍-
പ്രിയമപരപ്രിയമെന്നറിഞ്ഞിടേണം.
                             
Priyamoru jati; itenpriyam twadeeya-
priyam apara priyam ennanekamayi
priyavishayam prati vannitum bhramam; tan-
priyam apara priyam ennarinjitenam.

Dear to me is the caste to which I belong and so also dear to you is the caste to which you belong, and the same is true to another about his caste to which he belongs and so on, with regard to the innumerable associations we have in the world of objects. These sentimental differences and conflicts found in the fabric of human society are born out of our hallucination (mental agitation) and therefore, they are not real. What is dear to me is dear to you-and all, as well, and hence, all of us have to rise beyond our mundane attachments and realize the truth which binds all together.

(22)
പ്രിയപരന്റെയതെന്‍ പ്രിയം;സ്വകീയ-
പ്രിയപരപ്രിയമിപ്രകാരമാകും
നയമതിനാലെ നരന്നു നന്മ നല്കും
ക്രിയയപരപ്രിയഹേതുവായ് വരേണം.
                                
Priyam aparante yaten priyam, swakeeya-
priyam apara priyam iprakara makum
nayam, athinale narannu nanma nalkum
kriya yapara priya hetuvay varenam.

What pleases others pleases me also and what pleases me will please others too and so our policy must be to engage ourselves in activities which would bring about happiness to others always.

(23)
അപരനുവേണ്ടിയഹര്‍ന്നിശം പ്രയത്നം
കൃപണത വിട്ടു കൃപാലു ചെയ്തിടുന്നു;
കൃപണനധോമുഖനായ്ക്കിടന്നു ചെയ്യു-
ന്നപജയകര്‍മ്മമവന്നു വേണ്ടി മാത്രം.
                                  
Aparanu vendi yaharnnisam prayatnam
krupanata vittu krupalu cheititunnu;
Krupanan adho mukhanay kidannu cheiyu-
nnapajaya karmam avannu vendi matram.

Those who are compassionate are engaged day and night in activities meant for bringing about peace and happiness for others without any reservation whereas those who are interested only in their self centered desires are immersed in antisocial activities which disharmony in the society.

(24)
അവനിവനെന്നറിയുന്നതൊക്കെയോര്‍ത്താ-
ലവനിയിലാദിമമായൊരാത്മരൂപം
അവനവനാത്മസുഖത്തിനാചരിക്കു-
ന്നവയപരന്നു സുഖത്തിനായ് വരേണം.

Avan ivan ennariyunnatokkey orthal-
avaniyil adima mayi oratmarupam
avanavan atma sukhattinay aacharikku-
nnava, yaparannu sukhattinay varenam.

What is experienced as ‘He’ and ‘I’ as different entities is in fact the Atman (pure consciousness) in the beginning  while being examined in contemplation and hence what one performs for one’s happiness must contribute to the happiness of others also.

(25)
ഒരുവനു നല്ലതുമന്യനല്ലലും ചേര്‍-
പ്പൊരു തൊഴിലാത്മവിരോധിയോര്‍ത്തിടേണം;
പരനു പരം പരിതാപമേകിടുന്നോ-
രെരിനരകാബ്ധിയില്‍ വീണെരിഞ്ഞിടുന്നു.

Oruvanu nallatum annyanu allalum Che-
rpporu tozil atmavirodhi yorthidenam
paranu param paritapam ekidunnor
eri narakabdhiyil veenerinjidunnu.

As the society is a homogeneous whole, any individual action which is detrimental to others will lead the society to disintegration, which is against the codes of spirituality. Such individuals who by their malicious actions, spoil the cohesive existence of society, will no doubt fall down into the flames of the infernal hell and suffer the most painful agony.
 

Athmopadesh Sathakam- C.K.Balakrishnan (26-50)

Palavidham aayie ariyunnatu annya yonnay                                           
vilasuvatam sama yennu melil othum-                                           
nilaye arinju nivarnnu sammyam elum                                            
kalayil alinju kalarnnu irrunnitenam.

Plurality is the resultant effect of the operation of ‘avidyamaya’, namely the extroversial force, dormant in the unbound consciousness; and singularity is the quality of original state of supreme consciousness; and therefore, this truth is to be realized and one should remain steady in identification of one’s individual soul with the supreme soul, by hearing my words to be told hereafter.

(39)
അരുളിയ ശക്തികളെത്തുടര്‍ന്നു രണ്ടാം
പിരിവിവയില്‍ സമതന്‍ വിശേഷമേകം;
വിരതി വരാ വിഷമാവിശേഷമൊന്നി-
ത്തരമിവ രണ്ടു തരത്തിലാടുന്നു.
                                       
Aruliya sakthikale tudarnnu randaam-                                              
pirivivayil sama tan visesham ekam;                                              
virati varaa vishamaa visesham onni-                                              
ttaramiva randu tarathil aayidunnu.
 
Following the explanations so far given about the nature of qualities attributed to ‘vidya maya’ and ‘avidyamaya’ , the ‘vidyamaya’ can be said to be having only one qualification i.e. illuminating the objects and ‘avidyamaya’ having the quality of creating the countless number of objects with multitude of names and forms.

(40)
സമയിലുമന്യയിലും സദാപി വന്നി-
ങ്ങുമരുവതുണ്ടതതിന്‍ വിശേഷശക്തി
അമിതയതാകിലുമാകെ രണ്ടിവറ്റിന്‍-
ഭ്രമകലയാലഖിലം പ്രമേയമാകും.
                                       
Samayilum annyayilum sadapi vanni-                                               
ngamaruvathundu atatin visesha sakthi,                                               
amita yatakilu make  randivattin-                 
bramakalayal akhilam prameyam aakum.

Though the qualifying forces of ‘sama’ and ‘annya’, give scope for the countless and never ending created objects, the cause behind the feeling of existence in this world is the diametrically opposed two forces (extroversial and introversial) that are at work in the ‘sama’ , the subjective faculty, and in the ‘annya’, the operative principle. In other words, it is the relation between the perceiver and the perceived which induces the vibration of worldly view. All the movements become substantiated in the witnessing entity who is motionless.

(41)
'ഇതു കുട'മെന്നതിലാദ്യമാ'മിതെ'ന്നു-
ള്ളതു വിഷമാ  'കുട'മോ വിശേഷമാകും;
മതി മുതലായ മഹേന്ദ്രജാലമുണ്ടാ-
വതി'നിതു' താന്‍ കരുവെന്നു കണ്ടിടേണം

‘ Ithu kudam’ ennathil aadyamam ‘ithu’ ennu-                                                 
llatu vishama; kudamo viseshamakum;                                                  
mathi muthalaaya mahendrajalam untaa-                                                  
vathinu taan karuvennu kantitenam.

When it is said ‘this is pot’, the word ‘this’ indicates ‘avidya’ in us in so far as ‘this’ differentiates, the particular pot from the general concept of mud with which the pot is made. The pot is one which is bound under certain qualities (conditions) by its form and name. So also, our identification with our mind, body and intellect, eludes us from observing our own real nature, and so we are captured in this magical world of external experiences.

(42)
'ഇദമറി'വെന്നതിലാദ്യമാ'മിതെ'ന്നു-
ള്ളതു സമ,തന്റെ വിശേഷമാണു ബോധം;
മതി മുതലായവയൊക്കെ മാറി മേല്‍ സദ്-
ഗതി വരുവാ'നിതി'നെബ്ഭജിച്ചിടേണം.

‘Idam arivu’ ennathil aadhyamam ‘ithu’ ennu-
llatu ‘sama’; thante visesham aanu bodham;                                                     
mati muthalayava yoke mari mel sad-                                                     
gathi varuvan ithine bhajichitenam.

The one without a second in the beginning was Brahma. The feeling of “ I ” exist in the cosmic mind (Macromind) is the resultant effect of the influence of sentient force of ‘prakrity’ on a portion of unqualified Brahma; and so this awareness in the cosmic mind is attributed to be the inherent nature of the ‘saguna Brahma’, in the beginning. Later, the five fundamental factors, living beings, individual minds all emerged from the cosmic qualified consciousness. So to cross all these physical and mental boundaries, and attain the ultimate target of human boundaries, and attain the ultimate target of human life, one has to resort to the process of contemplation on pure consciousness; (our original and final abode of existence).

(43)
പ്രകൃതി പിടിച്ചു ചുഴറ്റിടും പ്രകാരം
സുകൃതികള്‍ പോലുമഹോ! ചുഴന്നിടുന്നു!
വികൃതി വിടുന്നതിനായി വേല ചെയ് വീ-
ലകൃതി ഫലാഗ്രഹമറ്ററിഞ്ഞിണം.
                                
Prakruti pidichu chuzhattidum prakaram                                       
sukruthikal polum aho ! chuzhannidunnu;                       
vikruthi vidunnathinnu aayi cheiveel-                                       
akruthi phalagraham attau arinjitenam.

Even good people are caught up in the eddies and whirled by the vehement impact of ‘vasanas’ triggered by the respective ‘gunas’ dominating in them; and so what to speak of common people and their sufferings due to their misdeeds and mistakes committed by the influences of lower impulses. Therefore, the remedy to avert such situations and be free from the influence of nature (vasanas) is to pursue the path of “Nishkama Karma” i.e.

(44)
പലമസാരവുമേകമെന്നു പാരാ-
തുലകിലൊരാനയിലന്ധരെന്നപോലെ
പലവിധ യുക്തി പറഞ്ഞു പാമരന്മാ-
രലവതു കണ്ടലയാര്‍ന്നിടേണം
               
Palamatha saravum ekam ennu para-                                                   
tulakil oranayil andhar ennapole               
palavidha yukthi paranju pamaranmar                                               
alavathu kandalayate amarnnidenam.

Remain firm, without being agitated and wandering, in search of absolute truth. The ignorant people who indulge in arguments based on logical conclusions of their own, regarding various faiths, without recognizing the essence of all the religious faiths as one and the same are like some blind men who cognized the elephant in many forms, touching its different parts of the body, and started interpreting the shape of elephant in different manner according to the particular portion each one touched.

(45)
ഒരു മതമന്യനു നിന്ദ്യമൊന്നിലോതും
കരുവപരന്റെ കണക്കിനൂനമാകും;
ധരയിലിതിന്റെ രഹസ്യമൊന്നു തനെ-
ന്നരിവലവും ഭ്രമമെന്നറിഞ്ഞിടേണം.       

Oru matham annyanu ninnyam onnilothum-                
karu vavarante kanakkinu oonamakum;               
dharayil ithinte rahassyam onnu thaan-               
ennu arivalavum bramam ennu  arinjidenam.

Rules of one religion or faith may not stand good for another one, in that each order or religion came to be established in the course of time, as a matter of fact under the influence of certain external conditions such as, climate, geographical conditions, historical events, language, racial difference, and so on, and the secret of such difference, when realized will be one and the same and then all the arguments built up on illusions will have no meaning at all.

(46)
പൊരുതു ജയിപ്പതസാദ്ധ്യമൊന്നിനോടൊ-
ന്നൊരു മതവും പൊരുതാലൊടുങ്ങുവീല;
പരമതവാദിയിതോര്‍ത്തിടാതെ പാഴേ
പൊരുതു പൊലിഞ്ഞിടുമെന്ന ബുദ്ധി വേണം.
                                         
Poruthu jayipathu asadhyam onninodu-                                   
oru mathavum poruthal odunguveela;                                                  
Para matha vaadi ithorthidate paazhe                                                  
Porutu polinjidum enna buddhi venam.

Owing  to the differences in the external oblations or rituals, that each religion has adopted, any fight among the various religions for each one’s dominance over the others will not end in success to any one rather it is in vain to launch attack on others, anticipating victory. On the contrary, it shall be understood that such religions will themselves perish in the course of their attempt to finish others.

(47)
ഒരു മതമാകുവതിനുരപതെല്ലാ-
വരുമിതു വദികളാരുമോര്‍ക്കുവീല;
പരമതവാദമൊഴിഞ്ഞ പണ്ഡിതന്മാ-
രറിയുമിതിന്റെ രഹസ്യമിങ്ങശേഷം.
               
Oru matham aakuvathinnu urappathella-               
varum ithu vadikal aarumorkkuveela;                                                
paramatha vadam ozhinja pandhithanmar-               
ariyum ithinte rahassyam ingu assesham.

Each religion upholds the view that man needs only one faith and one religion, though the reason behind such attitude is unknown to people who quarrel in the name of religions. Only those learned people who take no exception to the existence of other faiths know the secret in full.

(48)
തനുവിലമര്ന്ന ശരീരി, തന്റെ സത്താ-
തനുവിലതെന്റെതിന്റെതെന്റെതെന്നു സര്‍വം
തനുതയൊഴിഞ്ഞു ധരിച്ചിടുന്നു; സാക്ഷാ-
ലനുഭവശാലികളാമിതോര്‍ക്കിലാരും.
               
Thanuvil amarnna sariri, thante satta-                  
thanuvil ‘athente’ ‘titente’ tennu sarvam               
thanutha ozhinju dharichidunnu; sakshal               
anubhava shalikalam ithorkkil aarum.

The microcosmic consciousness (individual soul) caged in the frame of body feels attachment with the objects in the external world as though “that is mine” and “this is mine” but it shall be known that when we transcend our body consciousness, we come to experience the truth that all our attachments were there only owing to the undue importance given to our body.

(49)
അഖിലരുമാത്മസുഖത്തിനയ് പ്രയത്നം
സകലവുമിങ്ങു സദാപി ചെയ്തിടുന്നു;
ജഗതിയിലിമ്മതമേകമെന്നു ചിന്തി-
ച്ചഘമണയാതകതാരമര്‍ത്തിടേണം.
               
Akhilarum atma sukhathinay prayatnam                           
sakalavum ingu sadapi cheithidunnu;               
jagathiyil immatham ekam ennu chinthi-               
chakhamanayate akhatar amarthitenam.

All our efforts at all times are motivated by our innate inclination for the happiness of our self, and all religions have declared this fact unanimously. Therefore, let us not indulge ourselves in the commission of sinful actions, as it is a pre-requisite for keeping the mind calm and serene.

(50)
നിലമൊടു നീരതുപോലെ കാറ്റും തീയും
വെളിയുമഹംകൃതി വിദ്യയും മനസ്സും
അലകളുമാഴിയുമെന്നുവേണ്ടയെല്ലാ-
വുലകുമുയര്‍ന്നരിവായി മാറിടുന്നു.
               
Nilam odu neer athu poley kaatu theeyum               
veliyum ahamkruti vidhyayum manassum                                                 
alakalum aazhiyum ennu venta yella-               
vulakum uyarnnu arivayi maridunnu.

In the ultimate analysis of all phenomena like earth(solid factor) water(liquid factor) air(aerial factor) fire (luminous factor) ether (space or akash) ego, knowledge, mind, waves and ocean-ray the entire material and non-material substances in the cosnnological order,-are all revealed to appear as the cosmic consciousness in the highest experience.
 

Athmopadesh Sathakam- C.K.Balakrishnan (51-75)

(51)
അറിവിലിരുന്നൊരന്തയാദ്യണ്ടായ്-
വരുമിതിനോടൊരിദന്ത വാമയായും
വരുമിവ രണ്ടുലപങ്ങള്‍ പോലെ മായാ-
മരമഖിലം മറയെപ്പടര്‍ന്നിടുന്നു.
                
Arivil irunnu orahantha aadhyam untay-                
varum ithinodu oru idanta vamayayum                
varum iva randulapangal poley maya-                
mara makhilam maraye ppadarnnidunnu.

There emerged from the Macro-cosmic consciousness the micro-cosmic individual consciousness, in the form of ‘I’ feeling and then consequent to the feeling of ‘I exist’ the notion of ‘this’ arose besides the ‘I feeling’ to complete the process of Tripudi. The witnessship of the ‘subjective ‘I’ is substantiated only with the experience of ‘this’ (objects). The tree of phenomenal world is covered by two vines viz.,the subjective ‘I’ feeling and the objective experience which are created by the influence of maya.

(52)
ധ്വനിമയമായ്ഗ്ഗഗനം ജ്വലിക്കുമന്നാ-
ളണയുമതിമ്കലശേഷ ദൃശ്യജാലം;
പുനരവിടെ ത്രിപുടിക്കു പൂര്‍ത്തി നല്കും
സ്വനവുമടങ്ങുമിടം സ്വയംപ്രകാശം!
                
Dhwani mayamay gaganam jhwalikkum annal-                        
anayum athinkal asesha drushya jalam;                
punar avite triputikku poorthi nalkum                
swanavum adangum itam swayam prakasam.

The mind of spiritual practitioner will transcend even the special and temporal arena and reach chidakasa, the effulgent dimension of Omkara, where the entire objective phenomenal world has no root, and where the subject and the object merge together to complete the course of creation, and where exist only the illumination of the atma, without a second entity, since all acoustic vibrations subside there.

(53)
ഇതിലെഴുമാദിമശക്തിയിങ്ങു കാണു-
ന്നിതു സകലം പെറുമാദിബീജമാകും;
മതിയതിലാക്കി മറന്നിടാതെ മായാ-
വനിതയില്‍ മനനം തുടര്‍ന്നിടേണം.
                
Ithil ezhum adima shakthi yingu kanu-                            
nnithu sakalm perum aadi beejamakum;                
matiyathilakki marannidathe maya-                
mathiyaruvaan mananam tudarnnitenam.

The first second entity that arose in the unqualified Brahma was the prakrity, and it was she who delivered the entire manifested worlds. Employing all our intellectual capacity in understanding the role of  Prakrity, meditation is to be practiced incessantly to cut assunder the knot of delusion.

(54)
ഉണരുമവസ്ഥയുറക്കിലല്ലുറുക്കം
പുനരുണരുണരുമ്പൊഴുതും സ്ഫുരിക്കുവീല;
അനുദിനമിങ്ങനെ രണ്ടുമാദിമായാ-
വണിതയില്‍ നിന്നു പുറന്നു മാറിടുന്നു.
                                        
Unarum avastha urakkil illa urakkam                
punar unarum pozhuthum sphurikkuveela;                
anudinam ingane randu madi maya-                
vanithayil ninnu purannu maridunnu

While sleeping (being under the influence of Tamas) no one experiences waking condition, and after being awaken, sleep also does not find its place. The whole life like this borne out of primordial prakrity, is bound up in this two fold conditions. The sleeping stage and the waking stage can be alluded to death, and birth, which represent avidya maya and vidya maya.

(55)
നെടിയ കിനാവിതു നിദ്രപോലെ നിത്യം
കെടുമിതുപോലെ കിനാവുമിപ്രകാരം
കെടുമതി കാണുകയില്ല,കേവലത്തില്‍
പെടുവതിനാലനിശം ഭ്രമിച്ചിടുന്നു.
                
Nediya  kinavu ithu nidra poley nithyam                
kedum ithupoley kinavum iprakaram                
kedum ithi kanukayilla, kevalathil                
peduvathinal anisam bramichidunnu.

This life is a long dream in which events are appearing and vanishing; and as the dreams are occurring in sleep, so the very experience of our life here in its totality, is similar to a sleeping condition. As though from one dream to another, we are being subjected to many births and deaths. We are not aware of our real existence because of the agitated waves of vasanas in which our unit mind has been caught up.

(56)
കടലിലെഴും തിരപോലെ കായമോരോ-
ന്നുടനുടനേറിയുര്‍ന്നമര്‍ന്നിടുന്നു;
മുടിവിതിനെങ്ങിതു ഹന്ത! മൂലസംവിത്-
കടലിലജസ്രവുള്ള കര്‍മ്മമത്രേ!
                
Kadalil ezhum tira poley kayam oro-                
nnu udanudan eri yuyarnnu amarnnidunnu;                
mudivathinengu ithu hantha! Moola samvit                
kadalil ajasravum ulla karmam atre!

As the tides in the ocean are rising and subsiding, bodies are emerging from the ocean of cosmic consciousness to return to merge with it; and where is the end for this cycle of cosmic movement? In the cosmic consciousness, this two fold movements in extroversial and introversial phases are taking places as a course of infinite action.

(57)
അലയറുമാഴിയിലുണ്ടനന്തമായാ-
കലയിതു കല്യയനാദി ശരീരമേന്തി നാനാ-
സലില രസാദി ശരീരമേന്തി നാനാ-
വുലകുരുവായുരുവായി നിന്നിടുന്നു.
                
Alayaru mazhil undu anantha maya-                
kalayithu kallya yanadhi karyamakum                
salilarasadi sareeram enthi nana-                
vulakuruvay uruvayi ninnidunnu.

In the unbound infinite consciousness the maya or prakriti is lying dormant with her tremendous force to create, without having to depend on any other entity for such action, because general principles of cause effect relation cannot be attributed to her, since she is the first effect without a cause(Ahethukam). It is she who with her trifarious force, viz., Santient, mutative and static, gives birth to innumerable bodies with five fundamental factors.

(58)
നവനവമിന്നലെയിന്നു നാളെ മറ്റെ-
ദദിവസമിതിങ്ങനെ ചിന്ത ചെയ്തിടാതെ
അവിരതമെണ്ണിയളന്നിടുന്നതെല്ലാം
ഭ്രമൊരു ഭേദ്വുമില്ലറിഞ്ഞിടേണം.
                
Navanavam innaley innu nale matte-                
ddhivasam ithingane chintha cheithitate                
aviratham enni yalannidunnathellam                
bramam oru bhedavum illa arinjitenam.

What was new in the past has to be newer in the present and still newer in the future. Avoid tendency of the mind to run after noval things always. What we comprehend about this universe by (means of) counting and measuring in time and space, is nothing but illusion. All diversities apprehended are in no way different, they are one and the same in true sense.

(59)
അറിവിനെ വിട്ടഥ ഞാനുമില്ലയെന്നെ-
പ്പിരിയുകിലില്ലറിവും,പ്രകാശമാത്രം;
അരിവറിയുന്നവനെന്നു രണ്ടുമോര്‍ത്താ-
ലൊരു പൊരുളാ, മതിലില്ല വാദമേതും
                
Arivine vittatha nanumilla yenne-                
ppiriyukil illarivum prakashamatram                
arivu ariyunnavan ennu randum oorthal-                
oru porulam athil illa vadam ethum.

The feeling of ‘I’ ness or the individual consciousness cannot be but for the cosmic consciousness which is the nouminal cause of the phenomenal world of pluralities; and if the subjective ‘I’ feeling is separated, then all the objective world of pluralities become non-existent; and what will remain is the pure consciousness. Beyond the scope of any argument, both the knower and the known are the relative forms of the same entity.

(60)
അറിവിനെയും മമതയ്ക്കധീനമാക്കി-
പ്പറയുമിതിന്‍ പരമാര്‍ത്ഥമോര്‍ത്തിടാതെ,
പറകിലുപ്പരതത്ത്വമെന്നപോലീ-
യറിവറിയുന്നവന്യമാകുവീല.
                
Arivineyum mamathaiku adheenamakki-        
pparayumithin paramartham oorthidathe                        
parakilum appara tathwamennapolee-        
yarivariyunnavan annyamakuveela.

Without the realization of the infinite nature of the cosmic consciousness, the unbound cosmic consciousness is bound up in the periphery of ego or human intellect and is explained and even though this knowledge is so interpreted, the subjective entity which illumines the objects is part of the same cosmic reality.

(61)
വെളിവിഷയം വിലസുന്നു വേറുവേറാ-
യളവിടുമിന്ദ്രിയമാര്‍ന്നു തന്റെ ധര്‍മ്മം
ജളതയതിങ്ങു ദിഗംബരാദി നാമാ-
വലിയൊടുയര്‍ന്നറിവായി മാരിടുന്നു.
                
Velivishayam vilasunnu veru vera-                
yalavidum indriyamarnuu thante dharmam                
jalata yathingu digambaradi nama-                
valiyoduyarnnarivayi maridunnu.

The interference viz., sound, touch, form, taste and smell, being eminated from etherial, aerial, luminous, liquid and solid factors respectively create the various respective sense organs viz., ear, skin, eyes, tongue and nose; and all these phenomena are constrained to have different names and forms owing to the influence of ignorance; and when these objective attributes are transcended, all the differences go to form the one radiant eternal light.

(62)
പരവശനായ്പ്പരതത്ത്വമെന്റെതെന്നോര്‍-
ക്കരുതരുതെന്നു കഥിപ്പതൊന്നിനാലേ
വരുമറിവേതു വരാ കഥിപ്പതാലേ
പരമപദം പരിചിന്ത ചെയ്തിടേണം.
        
Paravasanai paratattwam entetenno-                
rkkarutarutennu kathipatonninale                
varumarivetu vara kathippathale                
paramapadam parichintha cheithitenam.

Being dissapated as a result of having treaded various paths in search of reality, like worship of idols, studying the completed scriptures and conducting expensive rituals to propitiate many Gods, one is caught up as a matter of course, in the jungle of dogmas. Then where is the chance for realizing the self. Only by means of contemplation and introspection one will be endowed with the opportunity to come to the abode of supreme reality within.

(63)
അറിവിലിരുന്നപരത്വമാര്‍ന്നിടാതീ-
യറിവിനെയിങ്ങറിയുന്നതെന്നിയേ താന്‍
പരവശനായറിവീല പണ്ഡിതിന്‍ തന്‍-
പരമരഹസ്യമിതാരു പാര്‍ത്തിടുന്നു!
                
Arivil irrunna parathwamarnnitatee-                
yarivine yingariyunnatenniye than                
paravasanay ariveela panditan tan                
parama rahassyam itharu parthidunnu!

The knowing entity without being subjected to the fetters of objects, is to be held as pure consciousness; and this transcendental awareness held hidden in the mind of the spiritual practitioner is unknown to people who are enticed and frustrated in the mundane life.

(64)
പ്രതിവിഷയം പ്രതിബന്ധമേറി മേവു-
ന്നിതിനെ നിജസ്മൃതിയേ നിരാകരിക്കൂ;
അതിവിശദസ് മൃതിയാലതീതവിദ്യാ-
നിധി തെളിയുന്നിതിനില്ല നീതിഹാനി.
                                        
Prativishayam Pratibandham eri mevu-                                    
nnithine nija smruthiye nirakarikku                
adi visada smruthiyal adeetha vidya-                
nidhi teliyunnathinilla neethihani.

On each sensual object, there exist obstacles, and in the chain of these objects, in the world, such obstacles go on increasing in their number and intensity which prevent us from moving in the path of progress. All these objects which are perceived through the windows of sense organs, and the memories imprinted in the mind disrupt one after another the upward flow of the human mind, and so dismiss all such worldly impression; and on the other hand elevate the unit mind to the level of macrocosmic mind, where the transcendental truth shines ever; and this state of higher consciousness is alone justifiable.

(65)
ഒരു കുറി നാമറിയാത്തതൊന്നുമിങ്ങി-
ല്ലുരുമറവാലറിവീലുണര്‍ന്നിതെല്ലാം
അറിവവരില്ലതിരതാകയാലീ-
യരുമയെയാരറിയുന്നഹോ വിചിത്രം!
                                
Oru kuri nam ariyathatonnu mingi-                            
lluru maraval ariveelunarnnitellam                 
arivavar illathirattathakayalee                          
yarumaye yarariyunnaho! Vichitram.

Certainly there is a time to all when each one of us will realize our self, which is part and parcel of the supreme self. The consciousness is bottled in the matter and so the five senses, can only perceive the physicalities of the objects. Even those who are awakened beyond the periphery of senses, are unable to know the supreme self that is infinite in nature. Oh wonderful it is that we do not know our own  self that is so dear and near to us.

(66)
ഇര മുതലായവയെന്നുമിപ്രകാരം
വരിമിനിയും; വരവറ്റു നിലപതേകം;
അറിവതു നാമതു തന്നെ മറ്റുമെല്ലാ-
വരുമതുതന്‍ വടിവാര്‍ന്നു നിന്നിടുന്നു.
                
Ira muthalayavayennum iprakaram
varuminiyum; varavattu nilpatekam;                
arivatu namatu tanne mattu mella-                
varumathu tan vativarnnu ninnidunnu.

There will not be any end to the emanation of objects in time and space, which are the pebula for the senses, and what is not coming into being is the subjective cosmic entity that is one without second and all the objectivated phenomena are substantiated only in the subjectivisation of the perceiver.  We and others are all nothing but the subjectivated objectivities.

(67)
ഗണനയില്‍ നിന്നു കവിഞ്ഞതൊന്നു സാധാ-
രണമിവ രണ്ടുമൊഴിഞ്ഞൊരന്യരൂപം
നിനവിലുമില്ലതു നിദ്രയിങ്കലും മേ-
ലിനനഗരത്തിലുമെങ്ങുമില്ല നൂനം.
                
Gananayilninnu kavinjatonnu sada-                
ranamiva randum ozhinjorannya rupam                
ninavilumillatu nidrayinkalum me-                
linanagarathilu mengumilla noonam.

One is that which does not come under the scope and range of analytical knowledge or empirical science; and the other is one which comes under the scope of our comprehension, and can therefore be discussed and analyzed or investigated. Except these two, another form or name does not exist, neither in the conscious level  nor in the subconscious level (dreams), nor in the unconscious level (sleeps), not in any other higher levels of experience (Thuriya) definitely no where.

(68)
ഗണനയില്‍ നിന്നു കവിഞ്ഞതൊന്നു സാധാ-
രണമിവ രണ്ടുമൊഴിഞ്ഞൊരന്യരൂപം
നിനവിലുമില്ലതു നിദ്രയിങ്കലും മേ-
ലിനനഗരത്തിലുമെങ്ങുമില്ല നൂനം.
                
Aravavatakruti polahantha randa-                
yarivilum anghiyilum kadakkayale                
oru kuri yaryya yithinganaryya yaku-                
nnoru kuri yennunarenam oohashali.

Just as the same rope appears to be a serpent before a traveler in a dimlight, on the road, the same ‘I’ which forms the reflection of the cosmic consciousness takes the shape of the manifold objects outside. In the internal phase of movement, the ‘I’ is the subject being a perceiver and in the external (Bahya) phase of movement the same ‘I’ is the objects being perceived. The subjective ‘I’ is called the Arya, which is nobler than the ‘I’ which is degraded to the status of objects, and this difference is comprehensible only to those who are accustomed to intuitional practice.

(69)
ശ്രുതി മുതലാം തുരഗം തൊടുത്തൊരാത്മ്-
പ്രതിമയെഴും കരണപ്രവീണനാളും
രതിരഥമേറിയഹന്ത രമ്യരൂപം
പ്രതി പുറമേ പുറ്രുമാറിടുന്നജസ്രം.
                
Sruti mutalam turagam toduthoratma-                
pratimayezhum karanapraveenanalum                
rathiratha meriyahantha ramyarupam                
pratipurame perumaridunnajasram.

Human body is a chariot attached to five horses i.e., the five sense organs and the intellect burning in this is the driving controller. The unit soul is the traveler sojourn for the time being with the body, to attain the destination, using this chariot as instrumental, indulging in sensual objects as vasanas intrigue, and at last to get exhausted all the propensities of mind, and come to the threshold of the supreme Reality.

(70)
ഒരു രതി തന്നെയഹന്തയിന്ദ്രിയാന്ത:
കരണകളേബരമെന്നിതൊക്കെയായി
വിരിയുമിതിന്നു വിരാമമെങ്ങു,വേറാ-
മറിവവനെന്നറിവോളമോര്‍ത്തിടേണം.
                
Oru rati tanney yahantha yindriyantah:                
karana kalebara mennitokke yayi                   
viriyumathinnu viramamengu vera-                 
marivavan ennarivolam orthidenam.

The one “kama Veija” (potential desire in the Macro Prakriti) blossoms in the forms of ‘I’ feeling, sense organs, mind and body; and this disturbance of the “potential energy”, the agitating force, is an eternal phenomena in the physical and mental worlds, and the one entity which stands strange to this agitating force is the cosmic cognitive principle.

(71)               
സവനമൊഴിഞ്ഞു സമത്വമാര്‍ന്നു നില്പീ-
ലവനിയിലാരുമനാദി ലീലയത്രേ;
അവിരളമാകുമിതാകവേയറിഞ്ഞാ-
ലവനതിരറ്റ സുഖം ഭവിചിടുന്നു.

Savana mozhinju samatwamarnnu nilpee-
Lavaniyil aarumanadi leelayatre;
Aviralamakum ithakavey yarinjal-
Avanatiratta sukham bhavichidunnu.

That none in this world shall come to attain the perfect normalcy and balance in respect of three gunas (sentient, mutaline, and static) is an eternal sport being played by the cosmic mind and the rare ones who come to know this truth enjoy limitless, unbound and immeasurable bliss.

(72)
ക്രിയയൊരു കൂരിതവിദ്യ; കേവലം ചി-
ന്മയി മറുകൂറിതു വിദ്യ; മായയാലേ
നിയതമിതിങ്ങനെ നില്ക്കിലും പിരിഞ്ഞ-
ദ്ദ്വയപരഭാവന തുര്യമേകിടുന്നു.
                
Kriyayoru kooritavidhya; kevalam chi-                
nmayi marukooritu vidya; mayayale                
niyatham ithingane nilkkilum pirinja-                
dwaya para bhavana turryamekidunnu.

All actions are propelled by the impact of vasanas (mental propensities) which are bone out of Avidya Maya, the base of all negative tendencies; and on the other hand, the mind moves through the positive phase towards the absolute knowledge, by the influence of Vidya Maya; and though by the law of nature, the two forces operate, ideation about the supreme entity enables the mind to rise beyond and realize the super conscious state (Thuriya).

(73)
ഒരു പൊരുളിങ്കലനേകണ്ടനേകം
പൊരുളിലൊരര്‍ഥവുമെന്ന ബുദ്ധിയാലേ
അറിവിലടങ്ങുമഭേദമായിതെല്ലാ-
വരുമരിവീലതിഗോപനീയമാകും
                
Oru porulingal anekamuntanekam                
porulil orarthvum enna buddhiyale                
arivil adangum abedamayitella-
varum ariveela ati gopaneeyamakum.

A matter is a composite structure including many things; and the many objects are made of one substance; and the knowledge which synthesizes all the variegated forms and names into one is a secret which is not open to all.

(74)
പൊടിയൊരു ഭൂവിലസംഖ്യമപ്പൊടിക്കുള്‍-
പ്പെടുമൊരു ഭൂവിതിനില്ല ഭിന്നഭാവം;
ജഡമമരുന്നതുപോലെ ചിത്തിലും ചി-
ത്തുടത്തിലിലുമിങ്ങിതിനാലിതോര്‍ക്കിലേകം.
                
Potiyoru bhuvil asankhyam appotikkul-                
ppedumoru bhuvitililla bhinna bhavam                
Jadam amarunnatupoley chitthilum chi-                
ttudalilum ingitinal ithorkkil ekam.

Matter is composed of millions and millions of molecules or atoms; and within atoms lies infinite number of sub atomic substances; and in fact there is no difference between the basic fundamental substances with which the universe in the large scale, is structured and the structure of the atoms at the smallest scale. The feeling of body is attained through the mind; and the mind is being projected by the interaction of the physical nervous system. With out body mind cannot exist and vice-versa.

(75)
പ്രകൃതി ജലം തനു ഫേനമാഴിയാത്മാ-
വഹമഹമെന്നലയുന്നതൂര്‍മ്മിജാലം
അകമലരാര്‍ന്നറിവൊക്കെ മുത്തു താന്‍ താന്‍
നുകരുവതാമമൃതായതിങ്ങു നൂനം.
                
Prakruti jalam tanu phenam aazhi yatmaa-                
vaham aham ennalayunnatu oormmijalam                
akamalararnnarivokke muthu tan tan                
nukaruvatam amritayathingu noonam.

Just as it is ocean that has supplied waters to the clouds, which by the showers have created rivers, ponds, lakes, wells, etc., with their limited quantities of waters which are nothing but the waters of the ocean. It is the cosmic ocean of consciousness that has become the nature, (satient, mutative, static) the physical body, the feeling of “I am” which like the waves of ocean, lash the shores of creation, one after another in countless numbers. To collect the precious pearls from the depth of the ocean of consciousness, one has to dive deep (meditate) into the depth of one’s own mind and enjoy the nectar of knowledge in each one’s self.

Athmopadesh Sathakam- C.K.Balakrishnan (76-100)

(76)
മണലളവറ്റു ചൊരിഞ്ഞ വാപിയിന്‍മേ-
ലണിയണിയായല നീശിടുന്നവണ്ണം
അനൃതപരമ്പര വീശിയന്തരാത് മാ-
വിനെയകമേ ബഹുരൂമാകിടുന്നു.
                
Manal alavattu chorinja vapiyin me-                
laniyaniyay alaveesidunna vannam                
anrutha parampara veesi yantharatma-                 
vine yakame bahuroopamaakkidunnu.

Like the sand storms lash a pond and agitate it by vehemently pouring sands into it, the Maya by her tremendous power strikes the nucleus of the unqualified Brahama and generate internally different waves, which when come out spread before us the phenomenal world of pluralities.

(77)
പരമൊരു വിണ്ണു, പരന്ന ശ്ക്തി കാറ്റാ,-
മറിവനലന്‍, ജലമക്ഷ, മിന്ദ്രിയാര്‍ത്ഥം
ധരണി, യിതിങ്ങണെയഞ്ചു തത്ത്വമായ് നി-
ന്ന്രിയുമിതിന്റെ രഹസ്യമേകമാകും.
                
Paramoru vinnu paranna sakthi katta-                
marivanalan jalam aksham indriyartham                
dharani yitingane yanchu tatwamay ni-                
nneriyum ithinte rahassyam ekamakum.

Above is the endless span of the sky, the ethereal factor; and there is the pervading power of aerial factor which is the source of all energies, and acts like a template for all the other  three factors; and the luminous (Agni) factor, (the magnetic field) radiates energy to objects for their expression; and the liquid factor helps the indriyas ( sense organs) to function and the solid factor (prithvi) cooks food for the enjoyment of senses. For the formation of these five fundamental factors, which are burning in the manner as said above, with all their differences and variations, that are found in the structure and the function, the raw material used is one and the same which is the cosmic mind.

(78)
മരണവുമില്ല പുറപ്പുമില്ല വാഴ്വും
നരസുരരാദിയുമില്ല നാമരൂപം,
മരുവിലമര്‍ന്ന മരീചിനീരുപോല്‍ നി-
ല്പൊരു പൊരുളാം പൊരുളല്ലിതേര്‍ത്തിടേണം
                
Maranavumilla purappumilla, vazhvum                
narasuraradiyum illa; nama roopam;                
maruvil amarnna mareechi neeru pol ni-                
lpporu porulam, porulalla ithorthitenam.

Nothing is dead or destroyed, nothing is born or created, nothing is living or existing, neither humans, nor Devas, nor Gods, nor any name or form, all are like mirage in a desert and so behold that such illusions of existence are really non-existent.

(79)
ജനിസമയം സ്ഥിതിയില്ല ജന്‍മിയന്യ-
ക്ഷണമതിലില്ലതിരിപ്പതെപ്രകാരം?
ഹനനവുമിങ്ങനെതന്നെയാകയാലേ
ജനനവുമില്ലിതു ചിത്പ്രഭാവമെല്ലാം.
                
Janisamayam sthitiyilla , janmiyannya                
kshanamathil illi, itu irrippateprakaram?                
hananavum ingane tanne yakayale                 
jananavumillitu chitprabhavam ellam.

While being born, the born is not existing; and the born is not there the next moment after birth since how can the being born remain in being born always? The case of death or perishability also is similar, and so except the glorious majesty of cosmic mind, there is neither birth nor death.

(80)
സ്ഥിതിഗതിപോലെ വിരോധിയായ സൃഷ്ടി-
സ്ഥിതിലയമെങ്ങൊരു ദില്ലിലൊത്തു വാഴും?
ഗതിയിവ മൂന്നിനുമെങ്ങുമില്ലിതേര്‍ത്താല്‍
ക്ഷിതി മുതലായവ ഗീരു മാത്രമാകും
                
Sthitigatipoley virodhiyaya srushti-                
sthitilayamengoru dikkil otthu vazhum?                
Gatiyiva moonninum engumillitorthal                
Ksitimulayava girumatramakum

Rest and motion are two conditions which are opposite to each other and which cannot happen together at a time. Similarly creation, operation and dissolution cannot happen together at a time. Therefore, all the changes that are taking place are unreal and the elements like earth, water, fire, air and ether are comprehended by means of only words which do not import their true nature.

(81)
പ്രകൃതി പിരിഞ്ഞൊരു കൂറു ഭോക്തൃരൂപം
സകലവുമായ് വെളിയേ സമുല്ലസിക്കും
ഇഹപരമാമൊരു കൂറിദന്തയാലേ
വികസിതമാമിതു ഭോഗ്യവിശ്വമാകും.
                
Prakruti pirinjoru kooru bhoktru roopam                
sakalavumayi veliye samullasikkum                
iha paramam oru kooridantayale                
vikasitamam itu bhogya vishwamakum.

The operating faculty exercising her influence on unqualified brahma is separated in two divisions, one as the objects, and the other as the witnessing counterpart. The one portion of the prakirty that is metamorphosed as the objectivities, creates this world and the worlds beyond, for the unit mind to develop into higher level of consciousness.

(82)
അരണി കടഞ്ഞെഴുമഗ്നിപോലെയാരാ-
യ്വവരിലിരുന്നതിരറ്റെഴും വിവേകം,
പരമചിദംബരമാര്‍ന്ന ഭാനുവായ് നി-
ന്നെരിയുമതിന്നിരയായിടുന്നു സര്‍വം.
                
Arani kadanjezhum agni poley yarai                
vavaril irunna athirattezhum vivekam,                
parama chidambara marnna bhanuvay ni-                
nneriyum, athinnu irayayidunnu sarvam.

The subjective unit mind immersed in deep meditation develops a capacity to burn all the lower impulses (vasanas) of the mind; and as a result, it attains power to enter into the horizon of “Chithakasa”, the intuitional layer of the cosmic mind, which absorbs the unit mind.

(83)
ഉടയുമിരിക്കുമുദിക്കുമൊന്നു മാറി-
ത്തുടരുമിതിങ്ങുടലിന്‍ സ്വഭാവമാകും,
മുടിയിലിരുന്നറിയുന്നു മൂന്നുമാത്മാ-
വിടരറുമൊന്നിതു നിര്‍വികാരമാകും.
                
Udayum irrikkum udikkum onnu mari-                
thudarum ithu ingu udalin swabhavam aakum                
mudiyilirunnu ariyunnu moonum atma                
vitarattu monnitu nirvikaramakum.

A body with a structure is liable to be destroyed and again created and being in another form as a matter of its own nature, where as the cognitive faculty from above witnesses the three conditions of the material bodies, without taking trouble to associate with them.

(84)
അറിവതിനാലവനീവികാരമുണ്ടെ-
ന്നരുളുമിതോര്‍ക്കിലസത്യ,മുള്ളതുര്‍വീ;
നിരവധിയായ് നിലയറ്റു നില്പതെല്ലാ-
മറിവിലെഴും പ്രകൃതിസ്വരൂപമാകും.
                
Arivathinal avanee vikaramunte-                
nnarulum ithorkkil asathyam, ullatu urvee-                
niravadhiyay nilayattu nilpatellam-                
arivil ezhum prakruti swaroopamakum.

‘Vikara’ of a matter is the discharge of radio active waves. The infinite space is a force field where all the elements are being created as a result of the interaction of primodial forces namely santient, mutative, and static. The countless objects remaining without any moorings are the metamorphosed forms of prakirty  reflected in the supreme consciousness.

(85)
നിഴലൊരു ബിംബമപേക്ഷിയാതെ നില്പീ-
ലെഴുമുലകെങ്ങുമബിംബമാകയാലേ,
നിഴലുമതല്ലിതു നേരുമല്ല വിദ്വാ-
നെഴുതിയിടും ഫണിപോലെ കാണുമെല്ലാം.
                
Nizhal oru bimbam apekshiyatey nilpee-                
lezhum ulakenghum abhimbam akayale                
nizhalum athillitu nerumalla vidwa-                
nezhutiyidum phani poley kanumellam.

An object in fact has no shade. Truly a shade is light itself in low frequency. Similarly, the manifested world of objects is not the shade of a second entity behind, because the subjective entity is formless. So what perceived is the distorted view or vibration of cosmic consciousness. The serpent indicates the wave function of cosmic mind.

(86)
തനു മുതലായതു സര്‍വമൊന്നിലൊന്നി-
ല്ലനൃതവുമായതിനാലെയന്യഭാഗം
അനുദിനമസ്തമിയാതിരിക്കയാലേ
പുനരൃതരൂപവുമായ്പ്പൊലിഞ്ഞിടുന്നു.
                
Tanu muthalaayatu sarvam onnilonnil-                
anrutavumayatinaley yannyabhagam                
anudinam asthamiyate irikkayale                
punarrta roopamai polinjidunnu.

All the structural existence of bodies is independent of one another. To prove the existence of body, the counterpart of consciousness is essential. The difference between subject and object is of only degree. As the sphere of existence varies from gross to subtle, the objective entity will go on waning in the process of subjectivating it, till it merges with subjectivity, and then, only the subject illumine by itself.

(87)
തനിയെയിതൊക്കെയുമുണ്ടു തമ്മിലോരോ-
രിനമിതരങ്ങളിലില്ല,യിപ്രകാരം
തനു, മുതലായതു സത്തുമല്ല, യോര്‍ത്താ-
ലനൃതവുമല്ല,തവാച്യമായിടുന്നു.
                
Thaniye ithokkeyumundu; tammil oro-                 
rinam itharangalil illayiprakaram                
tanu mutalayatu sattumalla, yorthal-                
anruthavum alla atu avachyamayidunnu.

All the objects have got special, temporal and structural differences. Even the body, mind and intellect are material objects with reference to consciousness. So what is felt as manifested world outside, is neither real, nor unreal. The truth lies beyond words, beyond the scope of normal understanding.

(88)
സകലവുമുള്ള്തു തന്നെ തത്ത്വചിന്താ-
ഗ്രഹനിതു സര്‍വവുമേകമായ് ദ്രഹിക്കും;
അകമുഖമായറിയായ്കില്‍ മായയാം വന്‍-
പക പലതും ഭൃഅമേകിടുന്നു പാരം.
                
Sakalavum ullathu tanney tatwa chinta-                
grahan itu sarvavum ekamay grahikkum;                
akamukhamai ariyaikil mayayam van-                
paka palatum bramamekidunnu param.

The multifarious phenomenal world is real from the stand point of a philosopher who views everything as different manifestations of the one truth. If the truth is not recognized in contemplation (introspection) Maya (Avidya) will take her revenge upon us creating agitations and confusions to our mind.

(89)
അറിവിലിരുന്നസദസ്തിയെന്നസംഖ്യം
പൊരിയിളകിബ്ഭുവനം സ്ഫുരിക്കയാലേ
അറിവിനെ വിട്ടൊരു വസ്തുവന്യമില്ലെ-
ന്നറിയണമീയറിവൈകരൂപ്യമേകും
                
Arivilirunna sadasthi yennasamkyam                
poriyilaki bbhuvanam sphurikkayale                
arivine vittoru vasthu annyam alle-                
nnariyanam eeyarivu ikyaroopyam ekum.

The interaction between the negative force (Asad) and the positive force (Asti) in the cosmic consciousness causes the emergence of countless sub atomic particles, resulting in the expression of this world. In fact what is called as ‘matter’ is nothing but another form of consciousness, and this knowledge will unify all the differences apparently seen.

(90)
അനൃതമൊരസ്തിത്യേ മറയ്ക്കുകില്ലെ-
ന്നനുഭമുണ്ടു സദസ്തിയെന്നിവണ്ണം
അനുപദമസ്തിതയാലിതാവൃതം
ഘനമതിനാലെ കളേബരാദി കാര്യം.
                
Anrutam orasthitaye maraikkukilla enna-                
anubhavam undu sadasthi yennivannam                
anupadam asthitayal ithavrutam sad-                
ghanam athinale kalebaradi kaaryyam.

We have the experience that unreal cannot cover the real. From object to object it is the consciousness which illumines the existence of such objects. As a matter of fact the consciousness in packets is what are called body, mind and intellect.

(91)
പ്രിയവിഷയം പ്രതി ചെയതിടും പയത്നം
നിയതവുമങ്ങനെ തന്നെ നില്ക്കയാലേ
പ്രിയമജമവ്യപ്രമേകാ-
ദ്വയമിതു താന്‍ സുഖമാര്‍ന്നു നിന്നിടുന്നു.
                
Priya vishayam prati cheitidum prayatnam                
niyatavum angane tanne nilkayale                
priyam,ajam, avyayam, aprameyam, eka-                
dwyam ithuthan sukhamarnnu ninnidunnu.

Ever since the dawn of human mind the mind is madly running after one object and another; and nowhere has it been able to quench its thirst. Behind all the desires there is the craving for infinite pleasure, that is Ananda which remains with us, as unborn, unwaning, incomprehensible, absolute and without a second.

(92)
വ്യയമണയാതെ വെളിക്കു വേല ചെയ്യും
നിയമമിരിപ്പതുകൊണ്ടു നിത്യമാകും
പ്രിയമകമേ പിരിയാതെയുണ്ടിതിന്നീ-
ക്രിയയൊരു കേവലബാഹ്യലിങ്ഗമാകും.
                
Vyayamanayate velikku velacheiyum                
niyamam irippatukontu nithyamakum                
priyamakame piriyate yundu ithinnee            
kriya yoru kevala bahya lingamakum.

The unswerving activities of all the beings prove that there is an eternal entity remaining inseparable within all beings which motivates all to perform actions. The body, mind and intellect are external equipments engaged for achieving the goal. Our innate nature is Sukha or Ananda.

(93)
ചലമുടലറ്റ തനിക്കു തന്റെയാത്മാ-
വിലുമധികം പ്രിയവസ്തുവില്ലയന്യം;
വിലസിടുമാത്മഗത്പ്രിയം വിടാതീ
നിലയിലി;ര്പ്പതുകൊണ്ടു നിത്യമാത്മാ.

Chalamudal atta tanikku tante atma-
vilum athikam priya vasthu ella annyam,
vilasidu athmagatha priyam vidathee-
nilayil erippathu kontu nithyam atma.

When the physical body comes to the stage of perishing after undergoing the changing process, and the soul is to depart with it, the mind clings to the soul leaving all the relations so far maintained with the physical body. The most precious thing that we love is our own self which is eternal.

(94)
ഉലകവുമള്ളതുമായ്ക്കലര്‍ന്നു നില്ക്കും
നില വലുതായൊരു നീതികേടിതത്രേ,
അറുതിയിടാനരുതാതവാങ്മനോഗോ-
ചരമിതിലെങ്ങു ചരിച്ചിടും പ്രമാണം?

Ulakavum ullathumai kalarnnu nilkkum-
Nila valuthayoru neethikeedu ithathre
Arutiyidan arutathavagmano go-
Chara, ithilengu charichidum pramanam.

It is really a matter of contradiction or paradox that the unreal world of objects is remaining mixed with the real entity. As no boundary can be drawn either by words, or  mind or by perception. What logic can be applied to see the truth.

(95)
വിപുലതായാര്‍ന്ന വിനേദവിദ്യ മായാ-
വ്യഹിതയായ്  വിലസുന്നവിശ്യ്വവീര്യം
ഇവ,ളിവളിങ്ങവതീര്‍ണ്ണയായിടും,ത-
ന്നവയവമണ്ഡകടാഹകോടിയാകും.

Vipulathayarnnu vinoda vidya maya-
Vyavahithayai vilasunna viswaveeryam
eval eval ingu avtherna ayidum ta-
nnavayavam antta kadaha kodiyakum.

Maya in her amusing play has expanded externally in the vast dimension with the energy being supplied by the macrocosmic entity, for such expansion. The manifested universe having elliptical shapes cores in number are parts of her (Maya) body extended in space and time.

(96)
അണുവുമഖണ്ഡവുമസ്തി നാസ്തിഉഎന്നി-
ങ്ങനെ വിലസുന്നിരഭാഗമായി രണ്ടും;
അണയുമനന്തരമസ്തി നാസ്തിയെന്നീ-
യനുഭവവും നിലയറ്റു നിന്നുപോകും.

Anuvum akandavum asthi nasthi  enne-
Ganae vilasunnu iru bhagamayi randum;
Anayum anathara athsi nasthi ennee-
Yanibhavavum nilayattu ninnupokum.

All that remains in two parts, in the smallest scale as atoms, and in the largest scale as the entire cosmological expression are real and unreal and both the concepts will be put off, and thereafter at the end of the search the sense of duality will cease to exist losing the base to stand valid, as the experiencer merges with the pure consciousness.

(97)
അണുവറിവിന്‍ മഹിമാവിലങ്ഗമില്ലാ-
രണയുമഖണ്ഡവുമന്നു പൂര്‍ണ്ണമാകും;
അനുഭവിയാതറിവീലഖണ്ഡമാം ചിദ്-
ഘനമിതു മൗനഘനാമൃതാബ്ധിയാകും

Anu arivin mahimavil angamilla-
thanayum akandavum annu poornamakum;
anubhaviyathae areveela akandamam chit-
ghanam ithu mauna ghanamruthabthiyakkum.

In the ultimate analysis of matter an atom loses its structure form and name and then the entire cosmos will become a whole and complete unit, except in the direct self realization no other objective means exist for the unit mind to experience the indivisible density of cosmic mind, which is silent calm, and which exist in the great and majestic ocean of unbound pure consciousness.

(98)
ഇതുവരെ നാമൊരു വസ്തുവിങ്ങറിഞ്ഞീ-
ലതിസുഖമെന്നനിശം കഥിക്കയാലേ
മതി മുതലായവ മാറിയാലുമാത്മ-
സ്വതയഴിയാതറിവെന്നു ചൊല്ലിടേണം.

Ituvarae nam oru vasthu inggu aringee-
la athisukameenu anisam kathikkayale
mathimuthalayava mariyalum athma-
swatha azhiyathae arivennu chollidenam.

So far we have not been given an opportunity to enjoy the spiritual happiness as we have been always searching for the material pleasures. Even when our mind and body go with the passage of time, the independent self will remain as true knowledge in a realized mind.

(99)
അരിവഹമെന്നതു രണ്ടുമേകമാമാ-
വരണമൊഴിഞ്ഞവനന്യനുണ്ടു വാദം,
അറിവിനെ വിട്ടഹമന്യമാകുമെന്നാ-
ലറിവിനെയിങ്ങറിയാനുമാരുമില്ല.

Arivu aham ennathum random ekamam-
avaranam ozhinjavanu annyanu undu vadam,
arivinu vittu aham anyam akum ennal-
arivinae ingu ariyanum arumilla.

The cosmic consciousness and the individual ‘I’ feeling (‘I’ consciousness) are one and the same, to the one from whom the curtain of Maya (illusion) has stripped off. In others the sense of duality persists which lead them to many arguments. When the unit ‘I’ is merged with the supreme subjectivity there will not be any separate ‘I’ feeling since all the objectivated expressions have been subjectivated into one cosmic consciousness.

(100)
അതുമിതുമല്ല സദര്‍ത്ഥമല്ലഹം സ-
ച്ചിദമൃതമെന്നു തെളിഞ്ഞു ധീരനായി
സദസദിതി പ്രതിപത്തിയറ്റു സത്തോ-
മിതി മൃദുവായ് മൃദുവായര്‍ന്നിടേണം!

Athum ithum alla asathartham alla aham, sa-
tchithamrutham ennu thelinju dheeranai                     
sathu asathu ithi prethipathiyattu sathom –                    
ithi mruthvai mrituivai amrnnidenum.

‘I’ am neither that object nor this object  nor the meaning of any object. ‘I’ am the true cosmic consciousness in the form of mind which is never a victim to any change, death or distruction. With this clear vision in the intellect detach the mind from all the attributions and hold that OM is the only Reality to be attained, and in a very gentle and gradual process get dissolved in the beatitude of cosmic entity, the ultimate bliss.

Om tat sat.
 

Song Of The Self - an interpretation by Dr. K.Sreenivasan

PREFACE

This is a follow up to my short biography of the Saint-Philosopher-Humanist, Sree Narayana Guru. In that I could devote only a brief chapter to his Darsana or Philosophy.
His magnum opus, Atmopadesasathakam(One Hundred Verses of Self Instruction) did not get its due meed. Indeed, it provides a unique exposition of Vedanta philosophy, brought up-to-date, in tune with the rational, scientific approach of our times.

Vedantic concepts, harking back to the RigVeda, become the most pervasive Darsana through Badarayana’s Brahma sutra, which conceptualized Advaita. Sree Sankara’s commentary made it the core. He, however, laid emphasis on spiritual concerns  and overshadowed life’s worldly relevance. Sree Narayana made Advaita an integrated approach which also concedes man’s existential needs.

The decision was a difficult one. The poem is sublime classic of Atma Vidya in deceptively simple Malayalam. Its author is a poet of transcendental merit. Knowing fully well these hurdles, I ventured. I did my best to render into English the one hundred verses of profound speculative content, taking care to see that it is not tampered with. I hope the reader will get the full import of the stanzas. In doing this arduous task, I made abundant use of Dr. Nataraja Guru’s learned study, One hundred Verses of Self Instruction, with commentaries spanning the philosophical poles of the East and the West.
In my commentaries, I include much from this source. I have also made use of Prof. G. Balakrishnan Nair’s exposition of this poem in Malayalam. The introductory section is virtually a collection of authentic views garnered from unimpeachable sources. I arranged them with a view to suggesting how Self-Knowledge is the fulcrum of our philosophical frame work.

I was privileged to get the foreword written by the eminent scholar, intellectual and writer, Dr. Sukumar Azhikode. His knowledge of Indian philosophical thought is exceptional, as is evidenced by his award-winning book, Tatwamasi, in Malayalam. Iam profoundly indebted to him.

I hope this slender volume reaches the right type of people, thinkers and intellectuals, who help lead to a clearer comprehension of the invaluable heritage of Indian philosophy.

K.Sreenivasan.

FOREWORD

The people of Kerala have taken to Sree Narayana, as they had never in their history opened up to any other teacher or to any other leader, social or political. He is the greatest Keralite in the modern times, unquestioned like Gandhiji in India. This should be quite surprising to those who had occasion to hobnob with the Malayalies, as they constitute a regional community given over to the habit of chronic dissent, incapable of tolerating  the domination of any super-hero. Dark canyons haunted by the ancient shadows of caste and religion still survive in their psyche. It is among them that Sree Narayana Guru of lowly origin , in terms of the Hindu social hierarchy, had managed to maintain his unshared position as the only universal teacher of Kerala.

Unique is what he is . You may start saying he is an Advatin, but you cannot stop with it. He is more than the orthodox advaitin. Or, more exactly his advaita is more than the conventional strain of advaita which is in vogue in the country. He straddles the ocean of Indian thought like a Colossus, with one foot sunk in the depths of the ancient sands of philosophical speculations and the other poised firmly on the promontory of the vision of human fraternity and equality.

The finest introduction to this integrated advaitic thoughts of the Guru is the monograph in Malayalam words, Atmopadesasatakam, a century of expository stanzas on Self-Knowledge. Among the philosophical verse of the Guru, this ‘Sataka of Atmopathesa’ holds the centre place by virtue of its profundity  of thought and also by its structural felicity. It enjoys, like the Guru, a unanimity in estimation which is seldom observed in chronicles of pibliolatry.

Ancient Indian authors are fond of using numerals in the Captions of their works, perhaps with an esoteric significance. They do not take delight in naming books by the operative number of the final verse. We have, for example, Sankara’s Dasasloki (a work in ten verses) and Satasloki ( a work in one hundred verses), as well as Bharthruhari’s collection of 300 gnomic verses or Subhashita Trisati.

‘Atmopadesasatkam’ purports to offer instruction on the theme of the self in one hundred verses. The verbal enchantment of this compound-word constituting the title of the work will strike even a dull reader at the very outset. Atma (self) is eternal and illimitable. Upedesa is ever occurring. Sadaka (century) cuts down these concepts to a limited number. Here is a picture of the human intellect trying to rise above its in born limitations. The title of the work fulfils itself as a salutation to the eternal spiritual power, offered in silence by the author, in his philosophical humility.

What follows can be only described as the world of superstellar effulgence. The manifold world, including the life of all of us, melts in the furnace of the inner mind of a Rishi and fuses itself into an experience of  light only, with no heat at all. Sankara tells in his Bhashyas that, prior to the grand unitive experience enjoyed by the self, the plurality inherent in life will tend to persist and it cannot be done away with in its entirety. Narayan Guru would not question this basic truth. But he would exhort you to practice the Advaita Dharma in your day-to-day living, even before you attain self-realization. Advaita should not be shelved till realization comes to you. In that case, the world around you cannot share in the glory of your unitive experience, however, imperfect it might be. If we are intellectually convinced of its truth, we need not put off practicing  it till the last day in our terrestrial existence. The profession of Adviata becomes nothing but a fraud and a sin when our chanting of the Vedic Hymns does not correspond with our practical life, where we chase away the Chandala, setting aside the teaching of the Vedas. No other Acharya than the great Sankara himself was reprimanded by Siva for this betrayal of the spirit of Advaita in his worldly behavior.

Generally viewed, thinkers and leaders in our country followed the track of Sankara in his temporary aberration committed by the force of pervasive social compulsions. The true path of Sankara paved with the unifying cement of Advaita lay untrodden over the centuries. Our Guru, in this spiritual solitariness, is seen trudging along this neglected path. No Siva comes down on him with a curse on his lips. The age-old bluff of inner betrayal by flaunting eternal loyalty to the Scriptures was calmly called off by Guru. Some regarded it as a sacrilege. But it was this act of the Guru that redeemed the sacredness of Advaita in this land. He gave us a critical standard by which the true and the false in Advaita could be separated.

After Sree Narayana, Advaita rediscovered its long-lost identity. It could no more be merely verbal. He redefined Advaita as a spiritual culture that should be inculcated from early childhood. Religion no longer can be a post-retirement hobby, but rather an integral part of the growth of the human being, by identifying every human being as part and parcel of the vast human family. This is the religion of ‘One Religion’. Sree Narayana is the prophet of this super-religion that transcends all warring faiths in this world.

Atmopadesasatakam is ‘Perennial Philosophy’ because it contains the glorious exhortation for man to see himself in everything outside himself and not to be fragmented by caste, creed, God, language or nation. The Sataka is invaluable to human beings as it simplified for them the meaning of Tatwamasi by striking an equation between oneself and the other. What is dear to the other person determines my need and not vice-versa. This is the first step of Advaita in practice. We were used to skip this first step, forgetting that no subsequent step is possible without taking up the initial work.

One who cannot comprehend this equation in one’s own life is not competent to talk about Advaita. This is the basic concept of the Adhikari in Indian Philosophy. One must be spiritually fit and competent to receive the teachings of Advaita from a genuine teacher. This idea of competence is revised drastically by the Guru, so that the test of competence lies in the readiness of the student to put Advaita into practice, by applying the formula of human quality in personal and social dealings. A new perspective, acceptable to a world troubled with its own grave concerns of survival of the species, is introduced in the Sataka.

Dr Sreenivasan introduces this noble text to a larger audience in this new edition than Malayalam could ever reach. This is one book which should be exposed to the rest of India and the west, on the strength of its philosophical comprehension and authenticity. By providing a translation of the text and a commentary, prefixed by an introduction to the work and to Indian philosophy in general, the accessibility of the book to the struggling seekers after truth is greatly enhanced. The English rendering of Malayalam text is extremely readable and reliable. The commentary will take the reader round the corners safely and the introductory essay is cogently written. Since Dr. Sreenivasan is a capable practitioner of the fine art of plain-writing, his explanation nowhere needs further explanation.

The translation- cum- commentary of Atmopadesasatakam comes off as a sequel to the biography of the Guru written by the author and reflects the transition of the author from a biographer to an interpreter. Iam happy that Dr. Sreenivasan has succeeded in both the roles and feel certain that his readers will be anticipating his continued success in these roles, while on the same theme.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Dr. Sukumar Azhikode.

SREE NARAYANA GURU- A Profile

Birth : August,20,1854.
Maha Samadhi : September, 20, 1928.

The Guru is a saint-philosopher and a quintessentially humanist social reformer.

Born at Chempazhanti in the northern suburb of Thiruvananthapuram, in a cultured rural milieu, the boy showed spiritual  bias from the beginning. He gained sound knowledge in Sanskrit classes early. The youth then led a wandering life. He visited many holy places in the South, learning at the feet of the scholars and religious teachers. He also had spells of austerities and meditation at scheduled posts.

After this spiritual quest, he lived among the common folk, learning about their existential hurdles. Slowly the Guru-role emerged. His fame as a Sanysin spread far and wide. An organization to propagate the Dharma of Sree Narayana Guru came into being. He was its patron and spiritual guide. It worked for social reform. Other social groups followed its example. Their joint endeavors moulded modern Kerala, which is a model for the rest of the nation. The Guru is the most outstanding Keralite of the century.

One of the epoch-making acts of the Guru is the Sivapratishta  at Aruvippuram. He, a non-brahmin, consecrated the Lingam. It was a courageous, non violent move against priestly privilege and its attendant exploitation. Later, he consecrated many temples in the west coast. His dearest pratishta  is that of the Benign Mother, Sarada Devi, the diety of knowledge, truth and beauty at Sivagiri Mutt, his head-quarters at Varkala. The two other pratishtas, that of a lighted lamp and that of a mirror, deserve attention. The lighted lamp symbolizes the ever-burning flame of Consciousness. The mirror is to help Know Thyself, tat tvam asi.

The Guru wrote sublime hymns and philosophical verses in Malayalam, Sanskrit and Tamil. The Dharsanamala in Sanskrit aphoristically expounds his philosophical perspective. Atmopadesasatakam, written in simple and elegant Malayalam, describes the path to self knowledge.

As a social reformer, he exhorted people to imbibe the ideals of love, brotherhood, service. He sounded the clarion call for one species, one religion and one God for humanity. He pin-pointed education, unity and hard work.

The great Malayalam poet, Kumaran Asan, is the Guru’s precious find. The disciple did much, through his magnificent poems, to popularize the Guru’s Dharma, which, with its emphasis on One Religion, is of immense relevance today.
 

Landmarks in Indian philosophy

“Religion is the art and theory of the internal life of man, so far as it depends on man himself and on what is permanent in the nature of things”. So said the eminent western philosopher, A.N.Whitehead in his book Religion in the making . Indeed, religion is humanity’s most precious heritage. It took shape from man’s need to know. Through such search has evolved all kinds of knowledge, spiritual and material, including the science and modern technology. The so-called secular creeds also are by-products of the basic existential quest. Besides the world religions,  humanistic creeds like democracy and socialism too have a speculative and philosophical basis. Exclusiveness and conflicts arise from the way in which these are exploited and misused for selfish and sectarian ends.

The word ‘Religion’, which originated from Latin, suggests “A relationship” i.e., ‘communion between the human and the superhuman’. Generally, religion every where signified individual effort to study and understand factors and forces within and without himself. This has given rise to the configuration of a universe of multiplicity and infinitude. The almighty God and his myriad manifestations of deities and divine beings came into existence. These exercises certainly vouch to man’s unbridled imagination and creative ingenuity. In the Indian milieu, religion is  a Way or Path, and philosophy is a darsana, that which is seen or realized. This has helped Indian religion to soar to greater heights of subtlety and logical exactitude.

Primitive man, in his ignorance and confusion, trembled in the presence of the  awe-inspiring elemental forces that encompassed him. The sun and wild fire, lightning and the whirl-wind were to him overwhelming manifestations. He sought to please and thus escape their wrath, “through scrupulous observation of omens and the performance of rituals” (that is what the Greek word for religion, parateresis, means). In very early primitive groups, such ritualistic worship of the Unknown came into being. In the course of time, fear of the tribal chief or dead ancestor gave immediacy and significance to these kinds of rites. Thus evolved the anthropomorphic concept of a stern, vengeful God who presided over human destiny. The Semitic world religions, -Judaism, Christianity and Islam- developed the God-centered dualism systematically. Indian religion also contains this aspect. But the Vedantic approach gained pre-iminence. It provides a highly intellectualized foil to conventional religious faith. However, in all world religions, in the arena of faith everywhere, rituals, superstitions and priest craft hold powerful sway. These elements have the strongest pull on the vast majority of ordinary believers. It will be the well-nigh impossible to weed these out totally. Unfortunately this outer crust of religion and faith is most malevolently exploited to promote political, social and communal self interest, thus leading to enormous strife, destruction and bloodshed.

A. Basic Values of Religion.

As life progressed, knowledge increased. Many a superstition of the primitive ceased to have sting. Learning more about his environment, man’s anxiety and dread became less. The scientific approach surfaced. Intuition and intellect helped him to ratiocinate and seek cause and effect. As ignorance, fear and helplessness receded, courage and self confidence increased. Tree thousand  or more years ago, there arose in China, India, Persia, Mesopotamia and later in Southern Europe, societies that mastered the art of civilization. And inevitably there was interaction among them owing to migrations, expansions, wars, conquests, colonisations  etc. In wake of these, there took place a reciprocal osmosis of concepts, thoughts and speculations which had assumed the modes of religious faith. Out of these emerged a substratum of ideals and goals identifiable in all great religions. And these constitute the most ennobling concepts of the human species.

Among them, the most fundamental one is that about man’s moral option. Free Will is, indeed, crucial. The primitive survived by the help of instinct. Civilised man manoeuvred for it. He also felt responsibility towards others as men. Thus evolved the Golden Rule as the norm of right conduct. Another concept is that of an ultimate monism in the scheme of things. Civilised theology, philosophy and science gravitated towards the idea of unity and oneness pervading all existence. In theistic religions the oneness is seen in a personal God –the creator, preserver and destroyer of the universe. In others, it is identified in a universal concept like the Absolute, or Cosmic Law like the Dharma. Buddhism conceives of an eternal Wheel of Righteousness, which, pre-supposses the unity of all life and its interrelatedness. Yet another basic tenet is that of the soul. Civilised man, unlike the primitive, attributed to himself a spiritual core, conceived as the Soul or Self. In feeling and conduct, it responded to overwhelming moral ideal and achieved harmony with a super human being or concept, which embodies the ideal. Another invaluable assumption is about happiness, its nature and scope. Man’s well-being and essential integrity lie in the pursuit of this goal. To the primitive, happiness meant satisfying his creature comforts and fleshly greed. But civilized society, especially its vanguard-the thinkers and philosophers- guessed that man’s natural cravings and undependable means to happiness: They only cause misery and sufferings to him and others. True happiness arises from identifying oneself with something  that transcends instinctive cravings. That alone brings true joy and a sense of liberation from worldly bonds. It is ascent as well as escape from mortal coils and assures the individual the bliss of Self-realization.

World religions highlight these essentials, each, perhaps, in its own individual mode. Such differences result from racial, cultural and geographical factors. Love, in its sublimest form, motivates all genuine religious acts. The essence of all religions is the same. Truth is one; learned people call it by different names. Satyam ek vipra bahudha vadanti.

Yet there are massive conflicts and senseless massacres taking place in the name of religion. They ensue from the mechanizations of the politics of power , racial hatred and regional jealousies. Even so, the awareness gains ground that true religion is a strong unifying force. It helps man to know himself and to work for the enduring happiness of all, irrespective of colour or creed, faith or race.

B. Our Philosophical Legacy.

Indian  philosophy is, perhaps, the earliest with a long history of unbroken growth. There are four major periods in it up to the time of its serious decline after A.D.1700.

The Vedic phase from 2500 to 600 B.C. is the earliest and is shrouded in obscurity. The Indus Valley Civilisation, anterior to it, had probably a superior philosophy. Saivism is attributed to this earlier Dravidian epoch. Certain aggressive barbarian groups which entered India through the North West gradually took possession of the land and began controlling its destiny. That phase of conquest and domination was also one of groping adjustment. Philosophy thought and superstition got intermingled and gradually transformed. The nomadic intruders might have had absorbed earlier, the nature theology, especially Sun worship , of the Persians. Then, interacting with Indus Culture, and assimilating aspects of the more sophisticated Dravidian world view, the poetic effusions of Rig Vedic nature worship took shape. Thereafter surfaced the monotheism of the Upanishads. This transition from sublime poetry to the profound Upanishadic speculations is a marvelous metamorphosis. The  assimilation of the native Dravidian metaphysics and its superior impact were, perhaps, responsible for this sea-change.

Of the four Vedas, Rig, Yajur , Sama, and Atharva, the first one is the more speculative. Each of the Vedas has four parts- Mantras, Brahmanas, Aranyakas and Upanishads. The later mantras of the Rig veda indicate the switch over to philosophical issues. These songs anticipate the monotheistic notions of the Upanishads. The Brahmanas spell out precepts for rituals as well as sacrificial duties of the priest. Aranyakas prescribe the regimen for the aged house-holder who withdraws to the forest abode. The Aranyakas form the transition link between the ritual and subsequent intellectual preoccupations. While hymns are the creations of the poets, the Brahmanas are those of priests and the Upanishads meditations of the philosophers. Indeed, the Upanishads are a veritable protest against the ritualism of the Brahmanas. The same protest reverberates more stridently in Buddhism and Jainism. In a sense, the Upanishads form the inspiring core of Indian philosophy. They initiated a tradition, which is the umbilical cord connecting the differing Indian perspectives to life and its issues. It is in them that intuition rather than reason is first recognized as the highway to Truth.

Next is the epic period from 500 B.C. to 200 A.D. It shows multidimentional growth. The epics like Ramayana and Mahabharata drive home philosophical values indirectly through the medium of fiction. This period also witnessed the rise and growth of Buddhism, Jainism, Saivism, and Vaishnavism. The Bhagavat Gita ranks as an authoritative text in Indian philosophical literature. The six orthodox systems also began to evolve, though their texts were written down only centuries later. These and Buddhism and Jainism developed side by side and interacted reciprocally to make Indian Thought multi-dimensional. This was one of the most fertile periods in philosophy the world over- in Greece, China, Persia and elsewhere. Perhaps, we have come to know only the tip of the ice-berg. During the same period surfaced approaches like skepticism, naturalism, materialism etc. The vast riches so churned up helped to systematize the six Darsanas and also to codify Buddhism, Jainism and the atheistic Carvaka materialism. The Dharmasastra treatises on ethical and social aspects also found their way in. This kind of  inter-relatedness is characteristic of the Indian philosophical tradition.

From the early centuries of the Christian Era began the sutra period  when treatises of the various schools were codified. The aphoristic form was invariably followed. The sutras were orderly and systematic. They were extremely brief statements logically developed.The six orthodox Darsanas  so codified are Nyaya, or logical realism: The Vaisesika or realistic pluralism : the samkhya or evolutionary dualism: the yoga or disciplined meditation : the Purva Mimamsa  or earlier interpretative investigation of the Vedas, relating to conduct : and Uttara Mimamsa or later investigation of the Vedas, relating to knowledge, also called Vedanta, the “end of the Vedas”.

The scholastic period, which extended up to the 17th centuary A.D. , is the last when innumerable commentaries were written for the Sutras. Noisy controversialists dominated the scene. “Logic chopping” was their sophisticated sport. Among them were exceptions like Sree Sankara. He wrote a commentary on Badarayana’s Vedanta Sutra (also known as Brahma Sutra). Sree Sankara was considered a greater philosopher than the author of the Vedanta Sutra. There were other outstanding commentators like Kumarila, Sridhara, Ramanuja, Madhwa, Vacaspati, Udayana, Bhaskara, Jayanta, Vijnanabhikshu and Reghunatha. They were creators of their own systems, drawing inspiration from the original Sutras. For example, based on Vedanta Sutra, Sankara, Madhwa and Ramanuja espoused their respective schools- Advaita, Dwaita and Visistadvaita.

The Muslim invasion followed by English colonization, upset the life pattern of the sub-continent, scattering and obliterating to a certain extent its intellectual and philosophical tradition. The central thread was snapped. However, later the loose ends were tied up by reform movements like the Brahma samaj and the Arya Samaj.Swami Vivekananda resurrected the study of Indian thought. He carried its wisdom to the West, which also helped its revival in the land of its birth. Indian Philosophy’s expansion in times to come will be best served by a synthetic approach to Indian and Western points of view.

Indian philosophy is unique . It is comprehensive as well as complex. The great Risis or Seers probed deeply not only individual experience but also  the pattern of the material world of name and form. They did not ignore the external realities. The methods adopted were original and far-reaching. The extent, variety and depth of their probings is astonishing. This intuitive and integrated stance is more basic than the empirical approach of Western Philosophy and science. The six systems and the several sub-systems of Hinduism are not world denying ones. Conversely, the four chief schools of Buddhism and the two schools of Jainism have a spiritual substratum. Carvaka system alone is grossly materialistic and blatantly anti-spiritual. Thus, all shades of thought and perspective are taken care of. These, too, have close links with the thoughts and ideas of earlier periods. In other words, all of them emanate from an unbroken tradition. However, it is wrong to identify any one skein as solely representative of the four millennia of speculative endeavors in our land. Even so, certain common features are identifiable.

The thrust is most importantly on the spiritual aspect, though happily inducing religio-social transformation. Another notable factor is the intimate application of philosophy to life. No school is a mere intellectual window-dressing. Every system has close relationship between theory and practice, doctrine and life. None is mere academic gymnastics. The intent is to explore truth which shall make men free. Philosophy, indeed, is for life : it is to be lived. Realizing  truth is the ultimate goal. Yet another characteristic is the importance given to introspection. Atma Vidya or knowledge of the self is the desideratum in Indian philosophy. The inner man is the target. The physical sciences had developed by leaps and bounds during the golden age of Indian culture. They are, however, not the means to ultimate truth. The subjective approach is preferred to the objective. Psychology and ethics are more important than the regular sciences. In short, idealism was the dominant trend. The introspective search was  foremost. A monistic idealism prevailed throughout. Reality is ultimately one and also spiritual. And of reason and intuition, the later prevailed. Only by intuition could ultimate truth be realized. Philosophy is darsana, that which was seen, realized. The unity of speculative exercises is also assured by the acceptance of authority- pramana. The ancient Srutis formed the bedrock of India’s varied systems and interpretations. That shows a synthetic approach to experience and reality. Metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, religion, psychology, fact and value flourish together in Indian philosophy. This has led to intellectual and religious tolerance. All the systems are united in a common practical motivation of moksha or  nirvana.  It connotes liberation, freedom from rebirth and suffering, and attainment of infinite bliss. In actuality, it is nobler and fuller life, here and now.

These characteristics have made Indian philosophy a many-splendoured dome which inspires and delights those who assimilate its glow with care and discrimination.

C. Vedantic thought.

Atman, bodha and moksha are the three interrelated concepts of  Indian Philosophy. Atman is the basic reality. How to know and also realize it, is the quintessential search. Such awareness leads to happiness of all. These formed the triangular nodes of Indian speculative endeavour which began with the Vedas and gained momentum through the Upanishads, Bhagavat Gita, Buddhist dissent and Uttara Mimamsa.

1. The Vedas.

The quest began with the Vedas or even earlier in the Indus Culture. The Vedas are deemed to be Sruti, revealed wisdom. Of the four Vedas, only Rig, especially a few hymns towards its close, has significance as pramana for the later speculations in the Upanishads. The Yajur Veda is concerned with sacrificial formulas. Sama deals with melodies and the Atharva has a large number of magic formulas. The Rig represents the earliest phase of spiritual consciousness. In it one comes across the poetic outbursts of minds fascinated by the immensity of the universe and the inscrutable mystery of existence. A super-personal monism evolves slowly. The universe is explained in the hymn of creation as an evolution out of an ultimate one. The hymn suggests the distinction between the Absolute Reality (Brahman) and the personal God (Iswara). This duality runs through subsequent metaphysics. Ultimately there emerged philosophical monism, Advaita.It is the doctrine of the impersonal, unknowable One.

2. The Upanishads.

They are the concluding portions of the Vedas. One of them set in motion the Vedanta trend. According to Max Muller, Veda is a “system in which human speculation seems to have reached its very acme”. The ideal which haunted the thinkers of the Upanishads is the enlightened man’s ultimate beatitude. It was attained through perfection of knowledge. The vision of the real was sought in two ways –by the mystic, as religious experience through devotion, and by the philosopher as a ceaseless spiritual quest.

In fact, Upanishads are the utterances of sages who spoke out of their deep-rooted experience. They considered knowledge as the infallible means to spiritual freedom. Gaining it is superior to Bhakti or devotion. Suggestions in Rig Vedic hymnsbecome firm pronouncements in the Upanishads.  Hymns to Gods and Goddesses are substituted by a search for the reality underlying the flux of becoming. Mundaka Upanishad asks :”What is that which, being known, everything else becomes known?.

The real which is at the heart of the universe is reflected in the infinite depths of the self. “The ultimate as discovered objectively is the Brahman and the ultimate as discovered introspectively is the Atman.” The great Sutra, tat twam asi, asserts the pre-eminance of the self. “When we realize the universal self in us, when and what may anybody fear or worship?”. “The Upanishads set forth the distinction between Brahman in itself and Brahman in the universe, the transcendent beyond manifestation and the transcendent in manifestation, the Self pure and essential and the self in the individual selves.”

The Upanishads subordinate Vedic ceremonialism and even caste duties to the supreme good of self-realization. They lay great stress on the distinction between the ignorant , narrow, selfish way which leads to transitory satisfaction and the way of wisdom which leads to eternal life. They point out the way in which ihe individual self knows ultimate reality by an inward journey, an inner ascent. Adequate moral preparation is needed for it. Mundaka Upanishad says: “The self is not to be attained by one without fortitude, not through slackness, nor without distinctive marks of discipline.” To see the self, one must become “calm, controlled, quiet, patiently enduring and contented”, according to Brahadaranyaka Upanishad.

The goal is not  heavenly state of bliss or rebirth in a better world. Negatively it is freedom from the objective cosmic law of karma; positively it is identity with the Supreme. Until we are released from the law of karma and reach moksha or deliverance, we will be in samsara or the time process.

The path of knowledge, the path of action, the paradoxical nature of the Atman and the nature of the non-attached sage are discussed in the Isa Upanishad. For true wisdom, neither knowledge of the supernatural nor of the natural alone can be sufficient. This, by implication, rules out the doctrine of Maya, the unreality of the empirical world, which later on became a vexed issue in Indian Philosophy. “By whom?” Asks the Kena Upanishad. Who is the real power behind the functions of the universe, external in nature and internal in man?. “An account of a single unitary reality, the Atman, as the inspirer of the functions of both man and the universe, of sense functions in man and the functions of the elements in the external world, is provided by the Upanishad. While knowledge of the Absolute unqualified alone can result in emancipation, knowledge of the Absolute as God prepares the way for such a knowledge.”Bodha or knowledge is above all worldly blessings to Nachiketas in Katha Upanishad. It is only by intuitive insight or direct realization that Atman can be known- not by the sense, by reason nor by much learning. This Upanishad visualizes the idea of the body as the chariot of the self. It is Mundaka Upanishad, the most poetical one, which identifies two kinds of knowledge, para (higher) and apara (lower). Mandukya Upanishad propounds the well known distinction of four states of consciousness- waking, dreaming, the profound sleep( jagrat, swapna, susupti) and the fourth ( turiya) which alone is real. Aitareya Upanishad identifies the Atman with the intellect.

Brahadaranyaka Upanishad is the most famous and one of the oldest. In it the greatest of the Upanishadic sages, Yajnavalkya, expounds philosophy to his wife, Maitreyi; in it is given one of the best expressions of the philosophical idealism of the Upanishads. The transcendental Atman is identified here as universal and undifferentiated consciousness. This Upanishad is famous for the doctrine of neti, neti (not this, not this ), the mystical doctrine of the inscrutability of the ultimate.

3. The Bhagavat-Gita.

There is the view that Gita is “a religious classic than a philosophic treatise”, “a tradition which has emerged from the religious life of the mankind.” Gita is both metaphysics and ethics, Brahma Vidya and Yoga sastra, the science of reality and the art of union with it. “The Gita derives its main inspiration  from the Upanishads and integrates into a comprehensive synthesis the different elements of the Vedic cult of sacrifice, the Upanishadic teaching of the Absolute Brahman, the Bhagavatha theism, the Samkhya dualism and the yoga meditation.”. Jnana, Bhakti and Karma- knowledge, devotion and work- are complementary, both when we seek the goal and after we attain it.

The thrust of the Gita is on the supreme as Personal God who creates the perceptible world by His Nature (prakriti). He is creator, Preserver and Destroyer. Gita entrenches bhakti as the over-riding mode. In fact, the Gita tilts the balance against the Upanishadic concept of the Self, which is realized through knowing it. A relapse was on. Religion tended to become more a matter of ritual and worship. During the epic period, this was the expedient used to bring the diverse sections of Dravidian and foreign origin under the banner of the Hindu priestly dispensation.

4. Buddhist heresy.

It is as a reaction to this that the unorthodox Systems like Buddhism, Jainism and Carvaka School arose. They are discriminated as nasthika darsanas, because they did not unambiguously accept the authority of the Vedas. Belief in God was not the criterion for dubbing them as nasthika. Some of the orthodox systems also had rejected the God-concept.

Buddhism really takes up some of the thoughts of the Upanishads and provides them with a new orientation. The importance given to bodha is significant. The Buddha did not formulate a new scheme of metaphysics and morals. He sought only to rediscover old norms and adapt them to the then prevailing tendencies of thought and life. Indeed, his was a Protestant Schism. Nirvana, like moksha, in real terms is freedom from ignorance(avidya), selfishness and suffering. Its positive aspect is attainment of wisdom(prajna), compassion(karuna). Free of attachment , one lives fully committed to good deeds. The Eight-fold path of morality is the means to the attainment of Nirvana. The Buddha’s philosophy is attuned to the ethical ideal of remaking man. Individual  change is of great significance. Metaphysical disputations would lead us only astray from the goal of making man. The Buddha is silent on the nature of Absolute reality, on self. He does not elaborate even on Nirvana. His sole concern is the individual and the good life. “Buddhism was a cathartic in learning the mind of the cramping effects of inherited prejudices”.

5. The Darsanas.

The emergence of the nastika darsanas led to a cross fertilization of concepts.The six orthodox darsanas slowly took shape. They were written down only much later. The philosophical heritage was sorted out and systematized. Its basis became categorically spiritual. Consciousness of Self was elevated as the key concept. Man knows himself; but only by superconsciousness can he scale higher limits and become what he ought to be. Of the six darsanas, it is Uttara Mimamsa or Vedanta which took up the study of super-consciousness. Badarayana’s Brahma Sutra or Vedanta Sutra deals with the embodiment of the unconditioned self. Sankaracharya’s commentary on it is considered as the finest exposition of its philosophy; he is the greatest exponent of Vedanta. His commentary  is an original piece far superior to the text. He incorporates in it rationally the key concepts of Self, Knowledge and Bliss.

“All means of knowledge exist only as dependent on self-experience and since such experience is its own proof, there is no necessity for proving the existence of the Self”. It cannot be proved because it is the basis of all proof. The self is undifferentiated consciousness, which remains unaffected even when the body is reduced to ashes and the mind perishes. The Self-Atman-is existence, knowledge and bliss- sat, chit, ananda. Sankaracharya believes that the world perceived is as real as the individual perceiver. He does not hold the world non-existent. But the world is not ultimate reality. To the Acharya, Atman is the same as Brahman:  the essence of the subject, the deepest part of our being, is one with the essence of the world. To remove ignorance is to realize the truth. We reach wisdom when error is dissipated. While Absolute Truth is Brahman, empirical truth is not false.

The individual Self is connected with buddhi or understanding, and this connection lasts until release is attained. By the practice of  ethical values and by the pursuit of devotion and knowledge, we reach the goal of self-realization, moksha. Moksha is not the dissolution of the world, but is the displacement of a false outlook (avidya) by the right outlook (vidya), wisdom.

These are the basic ideas in Adi Sankara’s Advaita philosophy.

6. A Synthetic view.

Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, the eminent philosopher, well versed in the religious thought of East and West, has sponsored a synthetic approach to religion. According to him “Religion is not a creed or a code but an insight into reality”. About the means to moksha, he categorically observes: “Salvation is attained not so much by placating God as by transforming our being, by achieving certain quality and harmony of the passions through severe self-discipline.” About the traditional world denial and renunciation of the Hindu sanyasin, he says: “withdrawal is not the whole of the religious tradition; there is also participation, enjoyment.” The Isa Upanishad asks us to enjoy the renouncing. It is a deep and disinterested acceptance of the world and a joyful recognition that no part of it may be refused. “We renounce the world in order to return to it with the knowledge of its oneness to sustain us.” In his positive approach to religious life, he envisages the true means to self-realization: “Meditation is the way to self-discovery. By it we turn our mind homeward and establish contact with the creative centre. To know the truth we have to deepen ourselves and not merely widen the surface. “

7. Self-Knowledge.

Sree Narayana Guru is a great saint and poet of the modern times hailing from the land’s end of India. Like Buddha and Jesus Christ, he renounced the world in order to return to it. He claimed that his Advaitha  is the same as Sankara’s. He set goals aright by brushing aside the false and motivated accretions on the Advaitic approach, like Mayavadam, which was falsely attributed to Sankaracharya. The Guru refurbished Advaita by considering all aspects of life, both spiritual and material, as real and unitive in nature. In his century of incantatory verses on Self-realization-Atmopadesasatakam(1897), he identifies the self, suggests how through knowledge it is realized, leading to harmony and bliss in the totality of life. The poem is a Song of Songs of our times. According to the Guru, philosophy has to play its dual roles of sustaining the spirit and also gathering together the pragmatic impulses. Both together will lead towards an ideal temporal dispensation.
 

A SYNOPSIS OF THE POEM

The very scheme of the poem highlights unity and relatedness. Though there are a hundred hymn-like verses, it is an integrated piece. There is a one-pointed exposition of and instruction on the Self.

The first and the last verses are introduction and conclusion respectively, the former being also the usual invocation. The poem begins with the key-word, arivu-Knowledge, which is the cardinal concern of Atma-Vidya.

The rest of the poem, 98 verses, is divided into two equal halves. The first half is concerned mostly with exploring the nature of the Self. The latter half elucidates the means by which the Self is realized and how liberation, glory and bliss are attained.

Verses 2,3, & 4 state generally the unitiveness of existence. Material and spiritual aspects, the diversified forms of outer and inner reality, are one and the same, like the waves and the ocean. This is to be known and the glory of its radiance rarefied absorbed through the tribasic approach.

After thus summarizing the central theme, a dialectical method of posing positive and negative nuances and synthesizing them is often adopted. This generates the immediacy and dynamism of a dialogue. It appears as if a person in the background raises doubts and listens intently as they are cleared. This does justice to the title. Gitopadesam is a deeply committed dialogue between the Lord and his dear disciple. Here the silent interlocutor  is human consciousness itself. Super consciousness results in non-attached existence and leads to self-fulfillment, which is  moksha or nirvana.

For man to awake, the right royal road is gaining of awareness. If by oneself one cannot make it, learn it at the feet of the liberated man. After suggesting this alternative, there begins an exposition as to how one can gain awareness. Contemplation is the means. It leads to knowing the oneness of the self. Ego is its distortion. By means of devotion this disharmony can be erased. Then the road to perennial glory will be clear. False worship will never do. For those steeped in love, life will be a long bliss, and hell to others who are not. Enlightenment comes not through rigours of penance and self-inflicted cruelty, but through intuition which contemplation leads to.

After giving these broad suggestions about the road to self-knowledge, the effort is on to identify the Self. It is like a flame, of the lamp which is the body, with instincts, mental functions and suffering. Yet the ego sense is not all darkness: it is primary form of knowledge. Indeed all existence is real. The waves are just another form of water. The world is real. To deny its essence is like the foolish one mistaking a garland for a snake.

Digressing  on certain aspects of external reality, it is pointed out how the wants and general desires of human beings are the same. The basic postulates of dharma, artha and karma, common to all, but found in varied degrees, are dealt with. The desirability of the good, unegotistic  deed is high lightened, along with the harm its opposite does. Un-wisdom causes selfishness.

After spelling out these ethical and social dos and donts, the central thread of identifying the Self is again taken up. The Self sits shrouded in the darkness of name and form. By thought this darkness of name and form. By thought this darkness can be exorcised. Or even by faith. Indeed, it is knowledge which removes nescience. The Self is known by a priori means. The Absolute drives in state mounted on the chariot of matter. Wisdom dawns suddenly with the brightness of ten thousand suns.

Knowledge, identified with both Self and Absolute, has two aspects- ‘same’ and ‘the other’, para and apara vidya. The two are analysed. There need be a vertical ascent from ‘the other’ to the summit of the ‘same’. Only consciousness can forestall wrong notions. All creeds are basically one. Only fools air contrary views. One basic truth is that all aim at happiness. That ideal is the one religion. Thus, the unitive approach, instinct in all, and aiming at the same good, is categorically espoused.

In the second half, verse 50 onwards, the means to know the Self introspectively is detailed. The totality of existence is identified with arivu or bodha. There are the twin aspects of self and the ego. Then is envisaged how this universe was born. Henceforward goes on this process evolutionary, of being and becoming. Because of change, life appears like alternating sleep and dream. But altogether is one. The only unchanging factor is Knowledge. It is something most difficult to acquire. The Self or the Absolute is Knowledge itself. But ordinarily the Self is taken on a ride by bodily external desires in pursuit of beauteous forms; the Self is eclipsed by the ego. And life’s procession moves on, led by libido and nescience. Only super consciousness can liberate the Self from enslavement.

Now, the one and the many are looked into. With the analogy of the ocean, the unity of all is illustrated. Each aspect- the five senses and the five principles- are examined. All their secrets is one. Birth and death are alike. Negatively, there is no being even: all is mind-stuff’s might. As opposites cannot co-exist, there is no beginning, existence and end. Reality and appearance cancel out each other: even the body is real and unreal. All is One and is Knowledge, which is the only Truth. This Truth is Love leading to happiness of all. Love is What makes the Self immortal. The real and the unreal are inexplicably mixed, to make life mysterious as well as many-splendoured. Wisdom arising from Knowledge realized, turns life into an ocean of nectar. In all, Self’s essence is Wisdom and Knowledge. And who knows it? Only ‘I’. If there ie no Self, there will be none to know knowledge.

The sequence closes with the categorical assurance that the Self is pure ambrosial infinite. Each, knowing  this, is to seek it, devotedly, prayerfully, and gently gently merge in it.
 

One Hundred Verses Of Self-Instruction (1-25)

 1
 Arivilumeriyarinnidunnavan ta-
 nnuruvilumottu purattumujjvalikkum-
 Karuvinu kannukal anchumullatakki-
  Tterutere vinu vanangiyothitenam.

 

To the core, that in knowledge intense shines,
In the knower’s body besides, and without too,
In adoration should one chant, with eyes five
Inward fixed, prostrating again and again.

Note: There is an ever shining Core – the Absolute – which is present in Knowledge, in the body of the one who knows and also outside, everywhere. Concentrate on this with the five senses controlled, and worship it humbly, with absolute dedication.

The universe exists because it is known. It is the Self which knows it. Therefore, Self is of paramount importance. The arivu (knowledge) which the Self endeavors to achieve is the connecting link with the Absolute. Therefore, Awareness or Knowledge is that which connects, brings about unitiveness, the state of Advaita understanding. The poem about knowing the nature, significance and the means of realization of the Self.

The first verse is the traditional invocation. The radiant Core or Absolute is, however, not conceived in a closed, theological or deistic sense.

The discussion starts significantly with arivu. The term is equivalent to jnana or Bodha. Awareness and consciousness are cognates. The arivu which each one has, aroused or dormant, is a spark from the radiant Core, Karu, Brahman. It is this spark which anmates all things, physical and spiritual. Hence the Advaitic Oneness of Reality. Even apparently inert mass is no exception.

The opening verse is, besides the invocation, a synopsis of the whole poem. It indicates succinctly the content, relation and subject matter of the whole work. And suggests clearly the kind of approach and the nature of the problem envisaged. Knowing the self is an ennobling theme. Hence the chant should be of extreme fervour, and worshipfulness, as in the case of the Vedas or for that matter any scriptural text.

The neutral unitive Absolute is again adored in the hundredth stanza. The intervening 98 stanzas fully visualize the Self in all its variety and complexity. Animated by the lamp of wisdom, and fulfilling its mundane and spiritual roles, the Self remains as the eyes and ears of total existence.

The poem is a hymn meant to help Self-realization, “to know thyself”.

In knowledge intense shines: What is suggested is para-vidya, knowledge of the intelligibles, Supreme Conciousness. The opposite is Apara-vidya, meaning knowledge of the visibles or the material.

In adoration ….chant: “This work is meant to be a song and a science at once. Exaltation is natural  to the adventure of the discovery of the self  and hence chanting the text is in order, and normally indicated”. The poem has the characteristics of both Veda and Vedanta. It is a “philosophical master-piece of our time.”

      2

(2)Karanavumindriyavum kalebaram to-
 ttariyumaneka jagattumorkkil ellam
Paraveli tanniluyarnna  bhanuman tan-
 tiruvuruvanu tirannu teritenam.

 

The inner organ, sense and the many worlds known,
Beginning with this body, are all, on thought
The sacred form of the Sun risen
In the void beyond. Know by intense search.

Note: Beginning with this body of ours, the thinking mind, indeed all the worlds we know of , are transformed aspects of the Sun, Light, Wisdom which is the source of all being. Discover it through sustained thought.

The inner organ: “Aristotle, Francis Bacon and Kant have employed the term Organon in referring to the instrument of reasoning in man…. It could be further vertically sub-divided into mind, reason, relational faculty, individuation etc., as has been referred to in Sanskrit psychology as manas, budhi, chitta and ahamkara respectively….. This inner organ uses the five senses such as hearing, sight, smell, taste and touch. The very first object with which we can be said to be in palpable contact is our own body.

The Sun risen in the void: Sun is the embodiment of Light, Wisdom, Knowledge, the Absolute. The Persians were Sun worshippers. Zorastrians extolled the mid-day sun. The Upanishads also refer to the Sun as  

References to Aditya, Savitr or Surya are numerous. The Sun is the visible symbol of the Absolute.

The many worlds: the fascinating diversity of nature and phenomena. There is no duality involved. The way “to arrive at non-duality finally, is first to find the counterparts that belong to the unity and bring them dialectically together for being resolved in unitive terms.

The stanza underlines the unity of all being. This we are aware of with the help of the inner organ, the self, owning to the spark of wisdom it has. The spark is part of  the Sun, the harbinger of Light. All things originate from it, assuming multiple forms. Unitiveness is what the Guru highlights in this key verse which starts the quest of the Self. This knowledge is gained only through intense search, ratiocination and thought. There are two poles involved in contemplation- one at the Core of one’s own being-Atman, the Self, and the other in the void beyond, in the sacred form of the Sun, in the Infinite.

      
  (3)                 Veliyilirunnu vivarthaminnu kanum
                        Velimutalaya vibhutiyancumorttal
                       Jalanidhi tannil uyarnnitum taranga-
                      valiyatupole yabhedamay varenam.

The phenomenal aspects five like the sky,
Here seen emergent from Light,
By contemplation must seem non-different,
Like the clustered waves risen from the sea.

Note: Including the sky, there are five emergent aspects. They emanate from light or the Sun. By thought it is possible to realize that they are one. The emergent aspects are similar to the waves surfacing on the ocean.

The idea of the previous verse ie. The unity and oneness of all being is further asserted in this.

The pancha bhutas- sky, air, fire, water and earth – are graded realities  of the phenomenal aspect of the Absolute. They manifest divergently  with different aspects. With an original smile, the idea is clinched. “The waves of the sea are water under specific name and form, but otherwise homogeneous with the ocean. This classical Vedantic example is resorted to by the Guru here to refer to the differencelessness between the cause and the effect in the phenomenal world.”

Maya vada (the doctrine of illusion) attributed to Sree Sankara refers to the visible world of phrnomina as a mere appearance or passing show. There is the ajata vada (doctrine of emergent appearance). Both emphasise the negative principle of Nescience. The state of consciousness of the human mind is supposed to be dimmed. The snake imagined  in a piece of rope is the hackneyed example for Maya or illusion. The Guru opts for the positive imagery of the waves and the ocean. He admits the phenomenal world as real. The non-difference basic to existence can be comprehended by proper reflection and contemplation. The Guru envisages a neutral Absolute. Through this he sponsors a pure consciousness which emphasizes the unity of all being. There is indeed none of the typical world-denial. Instead there is world-assertion which is a deep-rooted optimistic stance.

(4)                        Arivumarinnitumartthavum pumanta-
                            nnarivum oradi mahassu matramakum;
                             viralata vittu vilangumamahatta-
                             marivilamarnnatu matramayitenam.

Knowledge, the meaning known and the knowledge
Of the knower , make but one primal glory;
Merge in that great Knowledge  which shines
With radiance unrarefied , and become that alone.

Note: Knowledge, its meaning and knowledge of the person who knows are parts of the same glory. Seek identification with that rare radiance. The person’s knowledge is the sense of “I”, “I” which is there in the person who knows. It is the knower’s (njathavu) self awareness.

The idea in the previous verse is further explained. Knowledge, knower and the known are three aspects of understanding. They are tri-basic factors or tripudi - njanam, njathavu, njeyam. Once these three stages are transcended the primal glory illumines. It has a rare radiance. It is the light of the previous verse. And ultimately one should merge and seek to become part and parcel of that consciousness, Infinite.

Note  that  the Guru does not describe it as Brahmum, Paramatma etc. as done in Vedanta. He sticks to the universal non-sectarian concept of a power which animates all things. He develops the idea of the Absolute-Self methodically, stage by stage.

Radiance unrarefied: Direct awareness or bodha dawns suddenly almost by intuitive cognition. Compare Siddhartha becoming Buddha, the enlightened one, to whom nirvana is at hand through self-realization. Intense contemplation, looking into the self and understanding it, is the means to realization – not the usual penance and denial and self –inflicted pain to the body.

Become that alone: to reach Kaivalya (aloneness), a state in which subject and object merge to become one.

Thus the three verses- 2,3&4 – establish the unitiveness-non-duality-of all phenomena.

Uniqueness of the Guru’s Advaita.

The Guru is an Avowed Advaita Vedantin who follows the footsteps of Sri Sankara and revalues Advaita in his own way, preserving , however, the basic doctrine of non-duality. It is important to note where the Guru deviates and restates the viewpoint of Sri Sankara. He also strays from the two  other Gurus of South India- from Ramanuja’s Vishishtadvaitha (Qualified Monism) and from Madhwa’s Dwaitha (dualism). The Guru departs marginally in method as well as in theory of knowledge, … “though the essential spirit of the Upanishad and Bhagavad- Gita will be seen to be maintained, and the finalized position of the Brahma sutra generally supported, the Guru will be seen to confirm closely to the requirements of a more strictly unitive or dialectical approach.”

“He is not content to be merely teleological like Ramanuja, nor does he make of philosophy, as perhaps with Sankara sometimes, merely academic abstractions in which the living breezes of human values do not play.”

In verses 5,6&7, Sri Sankara’s method is adopted. Absolute is neutral witness. It manifests in the fourth (turiya) stage of contemplation, the three earlier being waking(jagrat) dreaming(swapna) and sleeping (sushupti). The Guru brings “dialectic to bear on common life.”

The three verses present the same thing from three dialectically different points of view. The Guru ‘represents the advaita tradition in a fully revalued and restated form…. A more unitive restatement in terms of a new world philosophy, where the scientific spirit would not be lost.

 (5)Ulakar urangiyunarnnu cintaceyyum
     Palatumitokkeyu muttuparttu nilkkum-
     Vilamatiyata vilakkudikkayum pin-
    Polikayumillitu kantu poyitenam.

People sleep, wake up and think thoughts;
Intently watches all these a priceless Lamp,
Which once lit is never extinguished;
One should ahead go seeing this.
Note: There is an invaluable lamp which watches all human actions- sleeping, waking and having thoughts. Once aroused in one’s self, this Lamp always burns brightly, Let this truth guide you in all your deeds.

The Sun or the Light of the previous stanzas is here conceived as a priceless Lamp unchanging, which watches human actions like sleep, waking and thinking, - a succession of changes during the work - a – day life. Like a modern pragmatic philosopher, the Guru, in the treatment of the text, includes contingent and necessary aspects. There is no other-worldly escapism in the treatment, nor is there the ivory tower isolation of the more ancient classical writers, both Eastern and Western.

People wake up etc: Steeped in ignorance, in the grip of nescience, are people. When they wake up or strive to be active, they are immersed in worldly interests, thinking that these alone count. It is from the sleepy darkness that the fanciful mind and its earthly desires take shape.

 

(6)Unaranam minniyurangeetanam bhujichee-
                tanam asanam punarenam ennivannam
                      anayumaneka vikalpamakayala-
                      runaruvatulloru nirvikara rupam?

  Awake, then sleep, eat or mate –
  Thus arise prompting many commonplace,
  This being so, who could really wake up?
  The inner core is an unemotional mould.
                    
Note: Waking up, sleeping, eating seeking pleasure are ordinary activities. One immersed in these cannot wake up, and get enlightened. The true self is in an unemotional state. It does not have changing moods and action. It is constant and fixed. Because of being too much engrossed in worldly tasks, a person finds it difficult to overcome ignorance and wake up.

 The Guru does not refer to the necessary rounds of life as sin, greed etc. as traditional religions do. They are unavoidable factors in worldly life. But if one is too much engrossed in them, it would be impossible to think of nobler unitive goals. The Guru brings into proper relief the two sets of interests or value worlds. He advises the discipline of the mind, to lift it away from its merely instinctive moorings and finally sublimate it to full selfhood.     

Who could really wake up. Being enmeshed in the flesh pots of life, who could escape them? Wake up means getting rid of illusions, of material promptings. The pure mind is undeflected  by emotions. The inner core is steady and unemotional.

(7)Unaranam minniyurangeetanam bhujichee-
                tanam asanam punarenam ennivannam
                      anayumaneka vikalpamakayala-
                      runaruvatulloru nirvikara rupam?

 Wake no more; remain ever sleepless
 As awareness; if for it unfit,
Fix thy form in serving the silent ones,
Who dwell awakened to OM, freed of birth.

Note: Do not exert yourself any more on transient, earthly tasks. Remain steadly, without the darkness of sleep, as self-knowledge. If incapable of such self-discipline, the alternative is to seek and serve a Guru who is an emancipated soul, one in whom the OM or the Absolute is already awakened.

 Intermediate to the extremes of sleeping and waking there is a purer middle state of consciousness. That neutral state is prescribed in this verse. Reference here is to the alternating states of sleeping and waking in consiousness.

In Vedanta, especially by Sree Sankara, the Absolute is conceived as the witness of the three states of waking, dreaming, and deep sleep, with the fourth called turiya, which touches the deepest stratum of Absolute Awareness.

The ascetic or the yogi is one who has the state of equilibrium between alternating states. The idea of learning at the feet of a Guru is a built in concept  especially in Vedanta. Sree Sankara’s Vivekachoodamani refers to the relation between the teacher and the disciples in detail. Gita also recommends this. In Upanishads, there are instances of adolescent seekers of wisdom like Nachiketas, Satyakama or Svetaketu  sitting at the feet of the Guru. The silent one is muni.

      
(8)Unaranam minniyurangeetanam bhujichee-
                tanam asanam punarenam ennivannam
                      anayumaneka vikalpamakayala-
                      runaruvatulloru nirvikara rupam?

Let Awareness which chops and dumps the birds five,
Perch’d in the cage foul-smelling and bent on
Wily sport changeful, eating the fruits five like light,
Manifest itself, to aglow the inner self.

Note: Inside the foul smelling cage are five birds. They are eagerly involved in actions which are changeful. They eat the five fruits. Let knowledge enable one to cut them and throw them away. By doing so, one’s soul begins to shine and dazzle.

In this verse, we have to imagine a hunter, trying to shoot down birds on a branch. The metamorphic implications are mixed. Finally emerges the function of the self viz., to destroy the evil tendency to physical enjoyment ie., pleasure. The self is having two polarities. One is changeful sport: the other is manifesting awareness. These should be reduced into absolute unity.

The way of absolute contemplation is not to be mixed up with mere religious piety. The latter is formal and superficial. Here the Guru indicates the drastic uncompromising attitude one has to cultivate in getting started in the path of real contemplative life. It is much more than mere prayerful meekness. It is a positive striving after attaining  Enlightenment.
                    
Wily sport changeful: The bird pecks at one fruit and then passes on to the another and yet another, as if expectation has been belied. Like that, human beings jump from one interest to another, finally to be dissatisfied with all. The tempting frustrating nature of external pleasure is figuratively portrayed herewith the foul smelling cage, the five birds, which are the five elements and the five fruits the five sense

Foul smelling cage is the body which is indeed smelling bad. It is something to be despised, by itself. It is the self which ennobles and gives authenticity to its cage which partakes of all evil propensities.

(9)                            Irupuravum varumaravasthayeppu-
                                 ttoru kodivannu patarnnuyarnnumevum
                                 taruvinatikku tapassucheytu vazhum-
                                 naranu vara narakam ninachitenam.

He who dwells in contemplation
Beneath a tree, whereon a creeper in bloom
Entwines upwards and envelops both sides,
To him, mark, never comes Hell.

Note: The one who remains steeped in inward thought, sitting under a tree, which is covered on either side by a creeper with blossoms, will never experience pain and sorrow.

Verses 8 & 9 together provide contrasted pictures. The former gives a repulsive picture of the one steeped in worldly concerns. The bird’s cage stinks. Its occupants are frivolous entities, who wallow in the senses. In verse 9, the contemplative man is introduced. Sitting beneath a tree over-spread with flowering creepers is an ideal existence, which sorrow can never penelise.

With this verse, closes a preliminary section. The next section deals with the nature of the self or soul in man, and  enters one step into the subject matter. Before that is given a word picture,“the ancient idiom of man sitting under a tree, which is found so often in the literature or mythology of various parts of the world.” The tree is the tree of life. Here is a fully contemplative man, under a tree, detached from the lure of passing interests. The turiya state is meant.

The Guru naturally thinks that the detached life of a silent one, immersed in inward search and cradled in the quietude and splendour of nature is the ideal life. But there is no suggestion of world denying ascetcism.   

The tree may be also interpreted to stand for the human body. Then the reference may also be to the Kundalini power.‘Covers both sides’ may be interpreted also at the six stages of the power manifesting, on either side. Yogies are supposed to rouse the Kundalini power by constant practice and meditation. This process in Hatayoga is more of a physical nature. In this context it is better to consider the reference as the symbol of the most detached type of inward search and contemplation.

(10)                            “Irulil irippavanaru? Cholka ni” ye-
                         nnoruvan urappatu kettu tanumevam
                         arivatinay avanodu “niyumar”e-
                         nnarulumitin prativakyam ekamakum.

“Who sits there in the dark? Answer thou.”
Hearing one say so, he asks, himself
To know likewise: Who art thee?”
To both the word of response is but one.

Note: All of us humans sit in the dark, engulfed in ignorance. Without realizing that, one asks another about his identity. The reply is also typical; in fact, the same question. Both are in identitical situations. None seems to enquire about oneself. “Who am I?” For one not knowing oneself, attempting to know the world is lopsided. “Know thyself”.

“The two men sitting in the dark, questioning each other in the name of knowledge about the self in each, represent a dialectical situation by which the Guru here in the tenth verse enters into the heart of the subject of the present work.”

         To know oneself is the core of the wisdom in East and West, in ancient and modern times. The duality of the two persons is resolved into the One of the last line. The two partial selves merge into the unity in the Absolute.

 

(11)                         “Ahamaham” ennarulunna tokke ara-
                                           yukil akame Palathatalla atekamakum;
                                             akalumahanta yaneka makayali
                                            tukayilaham porulum tutarnnidunnu.

What is termed”I”, “I”, on contemplation,
Is not many within, but one. Divergent egoity,
Being multiple, in the totality count too,
The self-substance continuity assumes.

Note: The two ego sense, when thought about, is not inwardly many, but one. Individual ego sense seems to be different, but in the collective sense, egos appear to be the same, indeed the self substance itself, with continuity and natural relationship.

The “I”, “I” feeling found in all people is essentially the reflection of the Absolute. As the context of the feeling is different, each seems to be different.

This verse also highlights the paradox of the one and the many. “In this vsrse the Guru is just broaching the subject of transcending contradiction and reducing contraries unitively.”

 

(12)                          Toliyum elumpu malam duranta mantah:-
                                  kalakalumentum ahantayonnu kanka!
                                 Poliyum itannya polinju poorna makum
                                 Valiyorahanta vara varam tarenam.

Skin, bone, dirt & fancies disastrous-
Look! The ego is one sporting all these!
It’ll lapse, be perfect by nescience lost.
Oh! Grant the boon that a big ego harasses not!

Note: The ego is concerned with skin, bone, dirt and evil fancies. It will cease when ignorance is removed. Pray that such a bloated ego does not cause delusions.

The structure of the self has been touched upon in the two previous verses. In this is highlighted its operational, realistic and pragmatic content.

Spiritual life oftenseems to  go astray because of the dominance of ego traits like desire, anger, avidity. Many a holy man errs this way. Hence in this verse, there is “a prayer for a boon to save self-hood from being developed in a wrong or compromised sense”.The difference between the two forms of the same self is therefore emphasized here. In this verse, “the Guru takes care to indicate that the ego that wields the skin and bone includes on its side many other factors of portent, which conduce to unhappy ends.” The two selves have to be abolished through unitive understanding. This is what the Guru has magnificently done in his century of verses. Indeed, ego has a duality which is horizontal (materialist) and vertical (spiritual –of an ascending nature, through self an consciousness touching the Absolute). It is the horizontal aspect that is euphemistically pictured in the first two lines.

The ego should not be allowed to suffer bloating, warping or distortion. We came across distorted personalities with egos exaggerated or awry in one sense or another. There are examples of ego being too much taken up with social or political problem. Institutional forms of holiness, which multiply these days, are also examples of misguided ego sense.

It is pointed out that “the position taken by the Guru is not repugnant to the attitude of the latest pragmatist or empiricist philosophers even though they might call themselves skeptics…They represent a form of agnosticism which is a natural corollary to Absolute Wisdom of the correct kind which still remains to be formulated scientifically.”

Betrand Russell in his History of Western Philosophy states that “physics and psychology have been approaching each other, and making possible the doctrine of neutral monism suggested by William James’ criticism of consciousness.

(13)                                        Trigunamayam tiruneer aninjo reesann-
                                               akamalarittu vanangi yakshamari
                                               sakalamazhinju taninju kevalathin-
                                               mahimayumattu mahassilanitenam.

Heart’s blooms proffer to the Lord who dons
The triple aspect’s ashes, supplicate, at peace inwardly be;
Sense interests thus effaced, impulses stifled,
    even the grandeur
Of aloneness snapped, sink into Primal Glory.

Note:Offer the flowers of thought and knowledge to Lord Siva whose body is smeared with ashes of nature’s three aspects. This gives inward peace. Thus are passions avoided, impulses controlled. The rare sense of aloneness of feeling that one is part of the Absolute is also destroyed. These lead to merging with and becoming part of the basic grandeur of existence.

Heart’s bloom : offspring of elevated thought
Triple aspects  : mode, modalities of nature-Satva, rajas, thamas (pure, active, dark )
Glory               : Mahas- the great principle- the Absolute still within the limits of the  
     Phenomenal aspects of reality. “Sink into primal glory” represents the
                           flight of the alone to the alone.

In the previous verse, self is distinguished from the non-self. Here they are equated in the context of  self-realization.

“This verse follows an antique and somewhat idolatrous figure of speech. The worship of Siva, the great God of Himalayas, who is at the same time the Guru Dakshnamoorthi (the divine manifestation of the south) as pictured by Sankara himself long before the Guru Narayana, is an inevitable idiom on the spiritual soil of India.”

Siva sits in meditation, cut off from all sense interests meditating on the Absolute and identical with it. The language used here is familiar to all Indians, especially to the temple worshippers of the South. The Guru onvolves this ideogram to convey easily what many dry paragraphs would have been needed to explain. He is only using popular idiom and not projecting an anthropomorphic God.

(14)                               Tribhuvana seema kadannu thingi vingum-
                                       triputi mudinju telinjidunna deepam
                                       kapata yathikku karastha makuveele-
                                       nnupanishad ukti rahasya morthitenam.

Beyond the triple world’s bounds,
Rid of the three-fold view that encompasses,
There’s the light burning bright; it’s out of reach
To the false hermit. This Upanishadic word’s import note.

Note: There is lifgt burning bright viz. the lamp of Truth, the Absolute, independent of the three worlds of heaven, hell and earth, where the three fold approach of meaning, objective and subjective aspects are non-existent. The false seeker or sanyasin can never hope to see that light, as the Upanishads warn.

The context of Siva worship is here abandoned in favor of Upanishadic teaching. In the Guru’s teaching of the science of self-realization, there are influences of Vedantic tradition as conserved in the Upanishads and that of the heritage of  Siva worship of South India.

The subjective and objective causes of erroneous appraisal of Truth are respectively the three worlds and the three fold approach. Triputi consists of njeyam, njanam, njathavu (known thing, knowledge, and the knower )

(15)                Parayute palu nukarnna bhagya vanmar-
          Kkoru patinayira mant oralpa neram;
                      Arivapara prakruti kkadheena mayal
                       Ara noti yayira mantu pole tonnum.

To the lucky, suckled in the milk of the Absolute,
Ten thousand years is a brief moment;
But when knowledge to relative nature enslaved,
Half a second would ten thousand years seem.

Note: To those who have mastered ultimate Truth, time fleets. But if knowledge is restricted to mundane matters, time hangs on heavily. Ten thousand years would seem like a moment to the former. To the other, one moment would seem to drag on into eternity.

The Guru systematically unfolds his dialectical method. Contraries are juxtaposed. The two aspects of the nature are reciprocal as well as contradictory. Both forms of knowledge, the human mind is capable of having or aspiring after. They are outer and inner truths. They are here brought under one scheme.

The knowledge of the Absolute is paravidya. Conversely knowledge of everyday world in the biological sense is aparavidya. These are formulations in Vedanta. Para has the quality of otherness: it is nitya : apara non- otherness : what is here, anitya.

Happiness shortens the time sense, sorrow multiplies and prolongs it. Happiness or sorrow- that is the crux of existence.

   (16)                                 Adhika vishala maru pradesha monnay
                                        nadi perukunnathupole vannu nadam
                                        srutikalil veenu turakkum akshiyennum
                                        yatamiyalum yativaryyan aayitenam.

A sound akin, as when the river overspreads
The whole expanse of an extensive region arid,
Falls into the ears and opens the eyes; so be,
The best of sages, gifted ever with self-control.

Note: When water rushes with great momentum into a vast desert , it arrives with an explosive din. Such an over-whelming sound falls into the ears and unfolds the sense of the genuine seeker after truth. Be such a stage with control of the self.

Here orthodox asceticism, involving regimentation of the mind and the body, is discarded in favor of a personal attitude, to be constantly cultivated by one who aspires for full attainment of wisdom or self realization. Patanjali prescribes eight stages of Rajayoga. In Gita only two are mentioned- Karma and jnana. The Guru in his Darsanamala also discusses only these two.

Here Guru describes the dawn of knowledge or bodha in the language of a personal experience. It reminds of one of Sidhartha’s Enlightenment.

Note that “wisdom gets established not by laboured graded steps, but that it happens when the personal attitude and the intelligence work together to usher in the result. No staircase is needed to ascend to wisdom. The duality between end and meansis abolished.

Here the intellectual and physical side are non-dualy implied together in the attainment of wisdom.
(17)                                   Azhalezhum anchitalarnnu randu thattay
                                          chuzhalum anadi vilakku tooki yatma
                                           nizhal uruvay eriyunnu neyyato, mun-
                                           pazhakiya vasana, varthi vrittiyatre.

The rotating lamp beginningless, with tiers two
And petals five suffering filled, hanging which
In shadow form burns the Self, for oil
Prior instincts worn, and mental functions wicks.

Note: There is an eternal lamp rotating . It has two tiers. The five petals are filled with suffering. The self controls it. The oil used in it is crude instinct,which has been abused. The wicks which suck in this oil are the functions of the mind. The lamp burns and casts a shadow. The lamp stands for life. The two tiers are the mental and physical attributes. The five petals are the five senses.

A total picture of life is given here through an arresting image.

Ref. to verses 10,11. Here the self’s content is more closely viewed. “…one of the magnificent  global visions of the psycho-physical reality which we often call the soul or more correctly the self in man.

Suffering filled : Thedoctrine of human suffering (dukkha ) too much emphasized in Mahayana Buddhism is not what is meant. The presence of evil in life is generalized. There is no trace of pessimism.The unitive philosophy of the Guru, while admitting pain, suffering and evil, hopes to overcome them and finally reach the poised state of happiness and contentment.

Tiers two: The self has two ambivalent polarities. The negative or dark side here is the shadow.

Petals five : The five senses of perception. Whether both tiers have five petals each is not clear. The petals represent the positive side of conscious intelligent perception.The lower tier represents the subconscious counterpart.

Wick & Oil : “The wick is the functional aspect while the oil is the thinking substance which enters into and feeds consciousness with a continuously flowing set of associations based on interests and instincts which unravel themselves.

In this verse, the Guru “indicates schematically the structure of the Self and stresses the road for a harmonized routine of activity for a sane spiritual life.

(18)                              Ahamirulalli; irulakil andharay na-
                                     mahamaham ennariyatirunnitenam;
                                     arivatinal aham andhakaramalle-
                                     nnarivatiningane yarkkum othitenam.
The “I” is not darkness; were it so
Blind should we be, unaware of “I”, “I”.
Owing to awareness, it is known that “I”
Is not darkness; to one and all tell this.

Note : The ego sense is not darkness, arising from ignorance. If it were so, we would have been unaware  of our very existence. As a result of knowing, it is realized that “I” is not darkness, that what we term life is not unreal.  

Here is closer examination of the Self. It follows the exposition in verses 10 and 11. But here the self is reviewed as “such”, without reference to anything outside itself. The reasoning here is confident and certain.

“That we are aware of the presence of the self in ourselves is here treated as equal to the proof of the existence of the self or the soul in an absolute sense in all of us.

The importance of the self is emphasized here. An open, public or scientific discussion is desireable. The Guru wants this self-evident verity of the self’s paramount role to be declared to all.

(19)                                Ati, muti,yattam, athuntu, ithund, athunte-
                                       nnadiyidum adima sattayullathellam;
                                       Jadamitu sarvam anithyamam; jalathin-
                                       Vativine vittu tarangam annyamamo?

“Bottom, top, end, it is, this is, that is”-
Tho’ isolated thus, yet all that exists is prime substance;
Bodies inert are all impermanent. Apart from
The form of water, can the wave be else?

Note : we consider bottom, top, end etc. as different entities. This classification is not justified. All that exists is the basic thing, part and parcel of the Absolute. The inert bodies, external manifestations, are changing objects which emanate from the same source viz. the Absolute. They are like the waves in the ocean. Are they not just water, in another name and form?

The Guru here “dismisses dualistic trends in favor of one central reality, as inclusively covering all existences, essences or substances.

Prime substance : a reality that abolishes all rival realities :it is the Absolute.

The advaita or non-dualistic tradition is upheld here. The Guru takes the classical example in Vedanta of the relation between the water and the waves that arise therefrom, to drive home his point of view. In absolute reality are involved only form and matter and no extraneous third factor.

(20)                               Ulakinu veroru satta yilla; atunde-
                                      nnulakar urappatu sarvam ooha heenam
                                      jalanu vilesayamennu tonniyalum
                                      nalamiyalum malarmala nagamamo?

The world has no essence other; by people
To say it has, is all against reason;
Tho’ to the foolish one it seems a reptile,
Will ever a flower garland fragrant be a snake?

Note : The world has only one essence. It is the Absolute. To say otherwise is not true. A flower garland seems like a snake to an idiot. But can this illusory feeling deny the fact of the flower garland?

Here is further assertion of the positive quality of life. The Guru purposely substitutes the dull, colourless rope of the usual metaphor with  a sweet smelling flower garland. That reveals his positive approach to life.

“The substitution of a sweet smellin flower garland and carefully qualifying it as beneficial, is meant to draw attention to the fact that, viewed from the standpoint of human values, the unitive link between reality and its mental hypostatic aspects, stand revealed together in greater unitive relief. In the classical example, it would seem that truth is valueless, while appearance is fraught with fear. Both tend to be negative in value. …A flower garland represents a spiritual value instilling neither fear nor favor, but fully significant to human life as a leaven.

(21)                             Priyamoru jati; itenpriyam twadeeya-
                                    priyam apara priyam ennanekamayi
                                    priyavishayam prati vannitum bhramam; tan-
                                    priyam apara priyam ennarinjitenam.

Of the same kind is liking :- this is my liking;
There is liking thine, another’s liking too; even so
Liking-wise severally misconceptions arise.
Know, one’s own liking is the others’s liking.

Note : We have likes. All of them are of the same kind.  There is no difference between the kind of  loves I have and what others have. Many wrong ideas arise on the basis of people’s likes. Better think that all likings are of similar significance.

The implied idea is that the dear thing all seek is the self. Love for one’s self is the unchanging thing in life. And love of life is, therefore, basic.

This verse and the next give the plus and minus aspects respectively. There is dialectics in this method. Through the juxtaposition of the negative and then positive aspects the issue is resolved and closed with a code of conduct.

The next few verses upto 25 are generalizations of conduct and morality. The dharma, artha, kama aspects are touched upon.

Of the purusharthas, moksha is, perhaps purposely not mentioned, like the Saint Tiruvalluvar in Tirukkural. The Guru was well- versed in that Tamil classic. It is significant that lord Buddha also was unconcerned with the other world and moksha . He conceived of Nirvana, a state of  superior awareness after Enlightenment. The Guru also envisages the illumined self, through bodha or awareness.

These stanzas underline the basic similarity or unitiveness of the wise human beings’ desires, appetites or aspirations. The basic axiom of good conduct reduces itself to one law viz. one is right where one is human and chooses to do always what is good for others also.
Essentially this is Humanism par excellence.

(22)                                 Priyam aparante yaten priyam, swakeeya-
                                        priyam apara priyam iprakara makum
                                        nayam, athinale narannu nanma nalkum
                                         kriya yapara priya hetuvay varenam.

The other man’s desire is my desire;
Desire mine is the other’s desire;
Such being the rule, acts leading to human good
Should to the other’s desire conduce.

Note : The conflict and exclusiveness in the previous verse is here resolved.

“The identification of one’s own best interests with that of his neighbour, who in principle, represents one’s own dialectical counterpart among human beings one comes into daily relationship, is the secret and time-honoured way of peace on earth, and good will to all mankind, which is the philosophical basis of human ethics as directly derived from Wisdom through self-realization “. Each man is his brother’s keeper.

(23)                                  Aparanu vendi yaharnnisam prayatnam
                                         krupanata vittu krupalu cheititunnu;
                                         Krupanan adho mukhanay kidannu cheiyu-
                                         nnapajaya karmam avannu vendi matram.

The compassionate man ceaseless does work
For the other’s sake unselfishly;
The egotist labours, face netherward bent,
In ignoble deeds, for his own sake.

Note : Working non-stop, selflessly for others’ welfare is what the kind man does. The selfish man labours with misplaced motives. His head always bent, targeting mean, material objectives, he seeks ignoble satisfaction for himself.

Here is comparison between the kind man and the selfish man.

If self is the dearest part of all men, what is incumbent on us is to know the self, and perform things it desires, which also inevitably must take the form of working unselfishly for the benefit of others. Truth and service and detachment are the goal of such a man. The three verses (22,23,24) hold aloft the ideals of love, service and brotherhood.

(24)                                       Avan ivan ennariyunnatokkey orthal-
                                              avaniyil adima mayi oratmarupam
                                              avanavan atma sukhattinay aacharikku-
                                              nnava, yaparannu sukhattinay varenam.

All that we know as this man or that,
Is, on reflection, a prime self-form on earth;
Whatever each does for self’s happiness,
The other’s happiness should subserve.

Note: The principled action, viewed from the social and ethical stand point is here restated in terms of self-knowledge.

Treating thy neighbour as thyself implies the equation of the self with the non-self.

When we think about it, we realize that all things are manifestations of the Absolute. This is real Advaita. Taking individuals, it is likewise clear that each is part of that basic spark of self-hood. Therefore whatever one does for his self’s happiness should help make others happy.

The duality we notice is unreal. A sense of equality and brotherhood is absolutely valid.

(25)                                      Oruvanu nallatum annyanu allalum Che-
                                             rpporu tozil atmavirodhi yorthidenam
                                             paranu param paritapam ekidunnor
                                             eri narakabdhiyil veenerinjidunnu.

A deed good for oneself but to another causes ill,
Remember, is the enemy of the self;
Those causing intense grief to the other person
Into Inferno’s boiling ocean fall and burn.

Note : Further implications of the reciprocity of the self and the non-self are here unitively developed from the negative angle. The harm that a negative approach causes highlighted here. Getting advantage for oneself, by causing harm to another self, is sin. Such deeds bring terrible retribution. The concept of Karma is implied here.
 

One Hundred Verses Of Self-Instruction (26-50)

(26)                                            Avayavamokke yamarthi yaniyay ni-
                                                   nnavayavi yaviyey aavarichidunnu;
                                                   avanivan ennatinalavan ninaykku-
                                                   nnavasathayam aviveka monninale.  

Suppressing limbs all, acting like a king-pin,
The limb-owner hides, enshrouded in breath;
Hence by unwisdom’s flaw only does one
Think like ‘This man’, ‘That man’.        

Note: The spark of life with in- the self, the “limb owner”,- presses down the physical body, and is present always hiding inside the breath. Since the self is thus concealed within, as a result of ignorance, the body thinks of this man and that man. A feeling of duality, thus, holds away.

Life is a sleep, chaperoned by ignorance. In sleep all bodily members are dormant. Breath alone is alive. Once awake, the body and its parts stir into action. Hence it is clear that there is some power which dominates. That alone is real. Without knowing this, people cherish dual concepts like ‘this man’ ‘that man’.

This verse explains why there is multiplicity. It is the patent work of ignorance. As the Gita says: “Wisdom is enveloped by unwisdom; therefore beings are deluded” ( V 15). That is why the distinction and discrimination of “I” & “he”. The existential side of the self is here compared to a “kingpin”. Limbs are aspects of the physical personality or inviduality. The physical body which has limbs, has some agent or owner within, which is able to order the limbs at its will. This relative self is what is seen from the angle of physical reality.

The equality of man is an accepted concept of democracy.

From Verses 10 and 26 there is an evaluation of the self from the ethical standpoint. The impact of the self on other selves, persons, social groups and humanity as a whole are brought under focus in this assessement.

 

(27)                                             Irulil irunnu ariyunnatakum atma-
                                                    varivatu tanatha nama rupamayum
                                                    karanamotindriya karthru karmmamayum
                                                    varuvatu kanka mahendra jalam ellam.

The self is that which, sitting in the dark, knows;
What it knows comes through name-forms,
And as actions mind and spirit forge.
Look! All that manifests  is great Indra’s magic!

 

Note: In sleep there is only darkness. Sitting in this darkness, the self knows. When sleep is over, the self becomes aware of name-forms, that is of material attributes. The transformation which takes place is really fantastic.

In this verse, the main thread of the wisdom teaching is continued.

Definition of the self or the soul is a subject for “ hair splitting scholastic philosophy in the West and vain Vedantic logic-chopping in India.”

“Here the self, soul or Atman is scientifically defined with experimental precision. This is accomplished by the experimental procedure of science.”

Refer to the situation in verse 10 about the one who sits in the dark. It is answered here.

What the self knows through name, form etc., comes to have the quality of stupendous magic. It is compared to the Great Indra’s work. He is the ruler of the Heaven.

 

(28)                                            Ati muti yattati tottu  mauliyantam
                                                   sputam ariyunnatu turryya bodhamakum;
                                                   Jadam ariveela atu chinta chaitu chollu-
                                                    nnidayil irunnarivu alla arinjidenam.

Beginning, end, bottom lowest to crest’s tip
To clearly know is turiya consciousness;
Body inert does not know it, mark, nor is itk
Knowledge, thoughtful discourse amidst lies.

Note: Knowing things from end to end, from top to bottom ie totally and comprehensively is only through turiya view. The physical body cannot know that. Nor is it obtained through discussion or ratiocination.

There are two aspects of consciousnessn within, as given to the contemplative vision. They are the psychic and the physical. One is transparent, filling the whole of the being as from within, spreading from our consciousness of the soles of our feet to the top of the crest of the head. This is named here as turiya. The other kind of awareness is not total. It is consciousness dependent on the physiological.

“The Guru here leaves out of account the usual classification of the consciousness into four as in the Mandukya Upanishad. (Jagat–the waking: Swapna the dreaming: Sushupti – the sleeping: and Turiya – the fourth). Here the Guru selects only the jagrat and the turiya (the clear, inner, all-prevading consciousness) for the sake of contrast.”

(29)                                           Manamalar koitu mahesha pooja cheyyum
                                                   manujanu mattoru vela cheytitenda;
                                                   vanamalar koitum atatallayaykil maya-
                                                   manuvuruvittum irikkil maya marum.

The man who plucks mind-blossoms
To propitiate the supreme Lord with, needn’t act else;
And also offering flowers wild, if not,
By telling illution’s name-forms, Maya flees.

Note: One who can pluck the noblest flowers of thought and indulge in the apprehension of the Absolute, need not do worship. The second and the third methods are external and ritual. One proffers flowers before the idol and another repeats the hymns in praise of the diety. In these three ways can Maya or ignorance be exorcised, with decreasing effectiveness.

Verses 29 to 49 provide a series of intermediate forms of meditative self-discipline.

What are the regimens or disciplines to get rid of error and arrive at wisdom? The Gita refers to them as sacrifice after the model of the fire sacrifice. That is the Aryan way of worship. The Guru adopts the analogy of idol worship in South Indian temples where there is the flower offering. Flowers represent blossomings  of the mind which are impediments to real wisdom.

“The mind is defined by Sankara as the seat of representative functionings (Snakalpa) and wrong resolves (Vikalpa). The mind functionings have to be sublimated from the lower to the higher levels by graded self- disciplines.”

Here, three graded ways of worship are mentioned. The highest is intellectual. The other two lower forms are ritualistic.

 

(30)                                Jadamariveela, arivinnu Chintayilla
                                       othidukayumilla; arivennarinju sarvam
                                        vidukil avan visadanta ranganay me-
                                        ludalil amarnnu uzhalunnathilla noonam.

The inert knows not  : awareness thinks not,
Talks not too awareness; knowing this,
If all is given up, inwardness transparent be;
Thence suffers he not in flesh enmeshed.

Note;Body cannot know. Knowledge is not capable of thought; it can’t also speak. Know this and give up all those which control them. The mind turns transperant and free. Thereafter the mind is free of the body. As one’s inner mind is freed, one has no suffering at all.

The importance of the inner organ is underlined. It is the seat of the awareness. Without it, existence is not possible.

The inert is ht e subject matter of this verse. It is the material aspect of consciousness. Renounce it in favor of the higher consciousness. Don’t mix cogitative thinking with the higher plane of wisdom. Here the true contemplative is meant.

“Knowledge must help to gain more knowledge and then arrive at the term of knowledge where one becomes aware of the absolute status of knowledge.”

Release from bodily bonds is a characteristic religious approach. In its name, the body is penelised by so-called ascetics. Here what is meant is not that kind of vulgarized attitude. The Guru frowns at the needless cruelty to the physique which misguided god-men practiced. “The contemplative way is one which begins by taking a unitive and neutral position as between the body and mind.”

 

(31)                              Anubhavam adiyil onnirikkil alla-
                                     tanumitiyillitu munnamakshiyale
                                    anubhaviyatatukondu dharmiyunde-
                                     nnu anumitiyal ariveela arinjidenam.

Sans experience prior, inference none be.
That there exists the Dharmi, isn’t earlier
By seeing experienced. Remember, hence
It can’t be known by deduction.

Note:Usually it is through experience that inferences arise. In the case of the self, nobody has seen it with naked eyes. Therefore self cannot be known by deduction.

Dharmi- innate potentiality- the potential agent which is innate.

Dharma: overt expression or manifestation. Deductive is the process of knowledge that follows experience through the senses (a posteriori). Inductive is the experience coming after the process of thinking has taken place (a priori).

Here the Guru means a posterori inference. In Sanskrit it is anumiti; inductive experience is anumana.

“The Guru is here particular to caution the seeker of self-knowledge about the limitations of the a posteriori form of reasoning.” A philosopher ought to follow the a priori (inductive) method. Brahma Sutra insists on it. Brahman is to be proved ontologically but by appeal to the a priori.

(32)                              Arivatu dharmiye yalla, Dharmamam
                                     eeyaruliya dharmmi yadrushyam akayale;
                                     dhara muthalayava yonnumilla, thangu-
                                      nnoru vadivam arivullatu atorthidenam.

What is known is not the inner agent, only its expression,
Since the agent of expression remains unseen.
The earth and so forth are not there, mark!
Exists only Awareness’ supportive manifestation.

Note: All the things we see are Dharmas – the external manifestation of an inner agent. This inner agent, the dharmi, the self, we do not know, because it means hidden within; it cannot, hence, be seen. Therefore to think that what we see are real is wrong. They are not really there. What is there is only pure Awareness. It supports all else.

“The supporting outline of awareness is the resultant of the meeting of two movements in consciousness referred to in the previous verse. A priori knowledge has to be understood in terms of the a posteriori aspect of the same event in consciousness, considered without psychic or physical prejudies- as it were, neutrally.”

“The Guru emphasizes here the correct methodology implied in all knowledge.”

In the earlier part, various aspects of the object of self-knowledge were examined. Then begines a more fundamental epistemological and methodological probe from 31 to 36. From 37 onwards there is a more penetrating analysis.

(33)                               Arivu nijasthiti yingarijidanay
               dhara mutalaya vibhutiyayi tane
                mariyum avasthayil eri mari vattam-
                tiriyum alatasamam tirinjidunnu.

Knowledge, its true state here to reveal,
By itself became the earth and other manifestations,
Entered identifiable state, changed form,
And rotates like a circling fire-faggot.

Note: How is it that there are earth and other inert bodies? Here is a convincing explanation. Knowledge, the Absolute, chose to become them. The purpose is to reveal itself. It trook identifiable forms, which all can see. Then it started turning around like a fire-faggot that is rotated. The fire faggot when turned produces an illusion of continous light. Like that, phenomena seem to have a rational, inter-connected, logical status of perpectual flux.

Fire faggot (alata) analogy for the phenomenological chain of events in consciousness is found in Vedantic literature. It suggests also what is implied in Quantum Mechanics about the thought process.

The rotated fire-faggot traces a continuos line. The chain of events is an unbroken process or repeated instant after instant (Kshanika). The two ways or the two-fold process of being and becoming are treated complementarily here.

(34)                              
                                              Aranodi yadi yarali yarnnidum te-
                                              rurul athil eri yurundidunnu lokam;
                                               arivil anatiyatay nadannidum tan-
                                               tiruvilayadal itennarinjitenam.

Mounted on the car wheel, the world rolls on,
With the primordial hub of half a moment;
Know this as His own sport divine beginningless,
Going on in the domain of consciousness.

 

Note:Does knowledge move? Yes. It manifests itself thus. Knowledge is the immemorial hub of the car wheel. In the chariot is planted the world. Because of the hub action, the world moves on ie., phenomena seem to activate. Phenomena being changeful, its duration is limited. But knowledge knows no end or limit. This is its immemorial play. In the realm of human consciousness, this sport goes on indeterminate.

Car wheel is the wheel of the time; its hub represents minute portions of time-moment, second, minute, day, week, month etc. This hub becomes active, in the backdrop of the still, immovable and everlasting Absolute. It induces the turn of the wheel and enjoys the resultant spectacle.

(35)                                  Oru patinayiram aditeyar onnay                                       
                                          varuvatu poley varum vivekavrutthi
                                          arivine moodum anithya mayayam ee-
                                          yiruliney yeernnezhum adi suryyanatre.

Like the rising simultaneously of primordial sun
Ten thousand, starts Wisdom’s functioning.
Verily is it the Primal Sun which roots out
Tainted Maya-darkness that does Wisdom eclipse.

Note: Wisdom comes with the dazzling brilliance of  ten thousand primordial suns rising simultaneously. Self-knowledge is the original Sun which completely destroys the darkness caused by ignorance.

In the previous verse it was pointed out that reality and knowledge are not distinct and that the content of half a second is sufficient to imply all the manifested universe. Here the Guru makes a more finalized statement about the way in which wisdom comes to the aspirant of Self- Knowledge. Coming of illumination is an overwhelming event in one’s life. Compare Siddardha’s Enlightenment.

Science and nescience are two aspects of the dynamism of Wisdom. Plus and minus sides alternate to make the phenomenal world, in an ever changing flux of becoming, which is Maya.

“The vision of the Absolute is here compared to the Primal Sun which for ever reigns dispelling the relativist darkness.”

 

(36)                                   Arivinu Shakti yananthem untitillam
                                          arutiyidam ‘sama’ ‘annya’ yennivannam
                                          irupirivay, itilannya sammyamarnnu-
                                          lluruvil amarnnu telinju unarnnitenam.

Endless is knowledge’s might. As parts two
These might br identified as ‘the same’ & ‘the other’;
Of these, ‘the other’ should become  ‘the same’,
Shine in the inner core and awakened be .

Note: The might of knowledge is without end. It can however be divided into two aspects viz. ‘the same’ and ‘the other’. “The ‘other’ is to become one with ‘the same’ in the consciousness and shine forth with added brilliance. The ‘other’ is apara and ‘the same’ is para vidya.

The stru7cture of Consciousness with two main axes of reference is explained in verses 36-42.

“Inwardly understood… the same self could be conceived unitively and contemplatively as participating qualitatively in the unity of the Absolute self, which is that of God. This same way of analyzing Consciousness has been consistently kept up in all writings of the Guru and constitutes his contribution to Advaitic or non-dual thought, of no small importance.”

‘The other’ should become ‘the same’ : The Guru thinks primacy need be given to neither. Their neutral point of intersection of the two axes of reference is what is important. The Self “has to be conceived in its neutrality and harmonious symmetry before other value accounts could be added to the basic picture.’

 

(37)                                Vishamata yarnnezhum annya vennu kolvan
                                        vishamam akhanda viveka shakthi yennye;
                                        vishamaye vennatinal vivekamakum
                                         vishaya virodhini yodu ananjitenam.

Without Wisdom’s undivided might, hard it is
To overwhelm ‘the other’, which obdurate thrives.
Hence tide over incongruity, get closer thereby
To Wisdom, sensuality’s arch enemy.

Note: Ignorance functions contentiously to cause trouble. It can be controlled only by the concerted power of wisdom. One has to control the false thoughts brewed by nescience. Thus can one be nearer to wisdom which is the chief adversary of sensual desires.

 

(38)                                     Palavidham aayie ariyunnatu annya yonnay
                                            vilasuvatam sama yennu melil othum-
                                            nilaye arinju nivarnnu sammyam elum
                                             kalayil alinju kalarnnu irrunnitenam.

That makes aware as many is  ‘the other’,
And what leads unitively to shine is ‘the same”;
Realizing the aforesaid norm, erect sit
 Mixed and melted in the sameness yielding art.

Note: That which makes one see multiplicity is avidya. The opposite which furthers the sense of oneness is Vidya. Understand the above difference. Then contemplate, sitting erect and fixed, in a typical yogic posture which helps concentration, and practice the way of life which induces a sense of unity and understanding.

Here there is a precise formulation of the two fundamental aspects into which the Guru has divided the totality of Self Consciousness. We get a unitive vision of rality and plurality.

The second half of the verse gives indication to the actual pracise of yoga.

Sit erect: It is the idiom of the yogic practice native to our country. A physical attitude of restful but alert contemplation, implying harmony and peace.

“The Siva Yogi  seal of Mohenjodaro, the Dhyani Buddha scattered over the vast areas of South East Asia in the form of images and the instructions of the Gita…. stress this attitude of alert relaxation combined with inner adjustment of the spirit turned to the Absolute.”

(39)                                        Aruliya sakthikale tudarnnu randaam-
                                               pirivivayil sama tan visesham ekam;
                                               virati varaa vishamaa visesham onni-
                                               ttaramiva randu tarathil aayidunnu.

Sequal to powers aforesaid, there ariseth
Divisions two; of them ‘the same’ hath
A single attribute; to ‘the other’s traits  incongruent
There is end none. Thus in modes twain they art.

Note: Owing to the above said powers, there arise two groups. The same’ is unitive; it has a single quality. But ‘the other’ has a diversity of aspects. These are the two broad approaches.

A more detailed analysis of the two primary tendencies follows. They are the generic and the specific aspects. Here analytical and synthetical methods go hand in hand.

(40)                                         Samayilum annyayilum sadapi vanni-
                                                ngamaruvathundu atatin visesha sakthi,
                                                amita yatakilu make  randivattin-
      bramakalayal akhilam prameyam aakum.

To ‘the same’ as to ‘the other always come
Ans accrue unique strengths respective;
Tho’ be unequal, it is from the twain’s
Spin-play all is to be reasoned of.

 

Note:Both the positive and negative aspects of knowledge, ‘the same’ and ‘the other’, have their own individual powers, though they are unequal. It is from the hectic interaction of both that the meaning of life is to be deducted. We understand them through their respective roles.

The complete picture of the psycho-physical dynamism of Self-consciousness is contained in verses 40,41,42.

Spin Play: brahma kala : “Modern Quantum Mechanics supports the idea of spin, both right-handed and left-handed, and is highly suggestive of the structural dynamism of the Absolute as seen by the Guru here.

Gaining the totality of experience is what constitutes spiritual progress. And philosophy is not only truth but also that which brings us nearer to happiness. This is the quintessence of the Guru’s quest of the self.

(41)                                                ‘ Ithu kudam’ ennathil aadyamam ‘ithu’ ennu-
                                                  llatu vishama; kudamo viseshamakum;
                                                   mathi muthalaaya mahendrajalam untaa-
                                                   vathinu taan karuvennu kantitenam.

    In ‘this is a pot’, the initial ‘this’
    Is ‘the other’, while ‘pot’ is the specific attribute.
    For the grand Indra’s magic like the mind
    To materialize, know, this forms the nucleus.

Note: ‘The other’ is the element which, out of the unitive base, creats the variegated phenomena. Hence it is responsible for manifold types of activity. In ‘this is a pot’, ‘this’ is the ‘other’ while ‘pot’ indicates the other’s special attribute. The mind wtc.,(the special) ie. All the wonderful variety of phenomena are induced to take shape by the p[ower of nescience, ‘the other’.

After isolating the two main tendencies within the movement of thought, here is provided a semantic or syntactic analysis.

The grand Indra’s magic: the world of pluralistic and disjunct rival values related to senses ie. The phenomenal world.

(42)                                              ‘Idam arivu’ ennathil aadhyamam ‘ithu’ ennu-
llatu ‘sama’; thante visesham aanu bodham;
                                                      mati muthalayava yoke mari mel sad-
                                                      gathi varuvan ithine bhajichitenam.

In ‘this is knowledge’, the initial ‘this’
Is ‘the same’, its attribute being cognitive Consciousness;
For the mind and all else to vanish
And for noble end to come, contemplate this One.
Note: Mind and all else stand for concern connected with the material constituents. These should be under the sway of cognitive consciousness or bodha. ‘Same’ and ‘other’ are ways of Vidya and Avidya respectively, of knowledge and nescience. For treading the right path, be guided by the Self.

Arivu is the pure unitary or unitive light of the Absolute. This is cognized by the Self. This ultimate standpoint is the goal of the aspirant for self-knowledge and is referred to in the second half of the verse.

 

(43)                                 Prakruti pidichu chuzhattidum prakaram
                                        sukruthikal polum aho ! chuzhannidunnu;
                  vikruthi vidunnathinnu aayi cheiveel-
                                        akruthi phalagraham attau arinjitenam.

As nature perforce catches and turns around,
Noble actors too, alas! keep turning round;
Non-action doesn’t work to get rid of evil action;
Gain-motive snapped should one this realize.

Note :Even noble minded people are induced by nature and instinct to stray from the right path. Evil is not controlled by itself. Each one of us should identify what is right and wrong and pursue the right path of non-attachment. Disinterested action-nishkama karma-is what sponsors.

 Here is highly concentrated aphoristic verse meant to give a final reply to the never ending discussion in Vedantic literature of the relative merits of jnana and karma. There has always been dispute about the relative importance of “piety” and “works”, between the followers of Jaimini, of Purva Mimamsa school and those of  Badarayana who accept the Vedantic point of view.

“Sankara’s position is unequivocal in the primacy it confers on knowing rather than on work. In a masterly tirade against the plea of combining Jnana and karma, of those who give equal place to both, in his introduction to his famous commentary on the Bhagavat Gita, he exposes the nature of the conflict and the subtle paradox involved.

The aaGuru here lays stress on karma. Note that he uses four Sanskrit terms here- prakriti(nature’s action), sukruti(the norm of good action), vikriti(perverted action) and akrti(non-action).

“A process of sublimation of gross tendencies of action in terms of subtler and subtler tendencies of purer and purer wisdom-content is involved here, to be grasped through intuitive imagination. An organic or living approach instead of a merely mechanistic attitude is called for”.

“Ends and means have to be conceived unitively before the process of sublimation is finally accomplished. While non-action is not held up as the ideal, work is not presented as the goal either. As in the famous verse in the Bhagavat Gita (IV 18) equating action and inaction, one arrives at a unitive view of  these rival value factors and then alone a solution is arrived at which abolishes the duality in the neutrality of the Absolutist view point. Prakriti, sukriti, vikriti and akriti referring to four kinds of tendencies in the self have all to meet centrally and neutrally in the consciousness that is established in the Absolute, for which disinterest or a dispassionate attitude is here recommended.

(44)    Palamatha saravum ekam ennu para-                                        tulakil oranayil andhar ennapole
    palavidha yukthi paranju pamaranmar
                                                alavathu kandalayate amarnnidenam.

Not seeing as the same the  essence  of all religions,
Fools roam the world, telling reasons of sorts,
Like the blind vis-à-vis the elephant :
Observing this, don’t get puzzled; steadfast remain.

Note : The quintessence of all creeds, sects and religions is the same. Without seeing this,  ignorant people argue about the superiority of their own faith. In this instance, the partial view of the blind about the elephant is relevant. One should not be caught in this folly. Remain steady and unruffled.

All religions in essence answer to the central human need for spiritual consolation. Ultimately this leads to satisfaction and happiness. Happiness is the one goal and creed of all human endeavors. None seeks suffering or sorrow. Lord Buddha only stated that sorrow is in-built in life. Greed and selfishness aggravate it. To contain and overcome it , the Eight fold path was prescribed. Detractors of the Buddhist creed labeled it a life-denying, pessimistic philosophy. Far from it.

“The one religion of mankind  to which the Guru Narayana referred in his well known motto of “One race, One religion, and One ideal or God for all mankind” , is to be visualized on the basis of the common creed of happiness that all religions, however varied and different superficially, have as the central value implied in their teachings.”

(45)    Oru matham annyanu ninnyam onnilothum-
     karu vavarante kanakkinu oonamakum;
    dharayil ithinte rahassyam onnu thaan-
    ennu arivalavum bramam ennu  arinjidenam.

One faith to another hateful be, and the essence
Taught in one lacks in another’s measure;
Until is realized the essence is the same,
Know, on this earth shall confusion prevail.

Note : Those who dispute about religion do so erroneously. Until it is realized that the essence of all religions is the same, there is bound to be confusion and conflict.

(46)                                         Poruthu jayipathu asadhyam onninodu-
                                    oru mathavum poruthal odunguveela;
                                                   Para matha vaadi ithorthidate paazhe
                                                   Porutu polinjidum enna buddhi venam.

By fighting one to one, winning is impossible;
By fighting is no religion destroyed :
This the other religions’ sponsors realize not,
Fight futile, fail: such cognition should be.

Note : Will conflict for religion’s sake lead us anywhere? By fighting, a religion will not be destroyed. This the antagonist does not realize. He fights and fails . Awareness to that effect is warranted.

(47)    Oru matham aakuvathinnu urappathella-
    varum ithu vadikal aarumorkkuveela;
                                                 paramatha vadam ozhinja pandhithanmar-
    ariyum ithinte rahassyam ingu assesham.

Indeed all plead for a single faith to be !
But this the sponsors none remember;
The wise ones, free of other religion spite,
Alone its secrets all fully know.

Note : Each and everyone is for a single faith. But whose faith? Wise people alone realize the narrowmindedness involved.

(48)    Thanuvil amarnna sariri, thante satta-
      thanuvil ‘athente’ ‘titente’ tennu sarvam
    thanutha ozhinju dharichidunnu; sakshal
    anubhava shalikalam ithorkkil aarum.

The self, in the body entangled, feels like
‘This mine’, ‘that mine’, with hesitation none,
That its essence all is in it . Any one
Who this cognisesis fit for realization true.

Note : There can be the most intimate relationship between body and mind, which is ultimately the self. When one says this is mine, that is mine, that process is taking place.
Anyone who understands this relatedness within oneself, is in the right track. He can aspire to self- realization.

 Man’s life is regulated and apprehended best with reference to his natural and normal life interests. Material needs satisfied make him happy. Moral, aesthetic or religious consolation is also of the same kind, but of a superior degree. The Guru opines in this verse about the nature of bi-polar interests.

“All men have self-realization already implicit in their relational life…. When a man says a certain thing belongs to him, he is in reality establishing a relationship between two entities, one of which is physical and the other that has only a psychic status”.

The Guru says self-realization is going on with each and every person : only most people do not know it.

(49)    Akhilarum atma sukhathinay prayatnam
                    sakalavum ingu sadapi cheithidunnu;
    jagathiyil immatham ekam ennu chinthi-
    chakhamanayate akhatar amarthitenam.

Every one here always efforts all
Render for the sake of self-happiness;
This in this world is the one creed.
Think so : control the mind, evil never befalling.

Note : Everyone acts to achieve happiness in his own self. This is the only religion or creed in this world. Know this clearly, control the mind and avoid evil deeds.

Here there is a bolder generalization of the idea of the previous verse. This is a very important statement about the fundamental unity of all faiths, applicable to the species as a whole.

Happiness is the goal of all human efforts, both material and spiritual. By asserting this idea again, the Guru evolves his concept of one creed or religion. Creed includes religions and the secular philosophies like socialism, humanism etc.

Self happiness is one’s own happiness. Happiness is felt by the self. Hence self-happiness is the correct translation of atmasukham.

The Guru indirectlt disowns the austerities of the world-denying ascetic, which, in a sense, is self-inflicted suffering. Happiness does not mean pleasure or the satisfaction arising from the pursuit of self-centred desires. All humans see the supreme felicity or bliss implied in happiness with a capital H.

“Happiness as the aim of man gives unity to human purpose and brings all religions, faiths or creeds under its single sway.

If this variety is understood, we arrive at one single value common to all faiths religions and can verily say that one religion is not different from another. The Guru gives the happy prospect of one religion for all mankind. In a scientific and public sense. He wants all to adopt this attitude which brings peace of mind and happiness to all, the high water-mark of unitive human values.

The Guru states through the verses 48 and 49 his unitive approach which takes into account all aspects of human life, body and self, material and spiritual, nature and Absolute.

Hereafter he discusses self-realization from two angles that of the realized person for whom the world is non-existent and that of the average human being who lives fully engrossed in this world of phenomena. Both of these are interrelated. They indicate two stages-higher and lower- of self-realization.

(50)    Nilam odu neer athu poley kaatu theeyum
    veliyum ahamkruti vidhyayum manassum
                                                alakalum aazhiyum ennu venta yella-
    vulakum uyarnnu arivayi maridunnu.

Along with earth and water, air and fire,
The void, ego, cognition and mind, indeed
All worlds, including waves and ocean,
Into Awareness supreme transform.

Note : All phenomena, material as well as mental, are reduced to knowledge which is Absolute, if so conceived. Arivu or bodha, the self alone is capable of apprehending. Hence Self is the core also. Thus the Advaita or non-duality.

This is the 50th or central verse. Hence there is shift from the previous one. The change over is from the ontological to the teleological aspect of Self-instruction. Verse 49 ended with the note that one should settle down in the inner peace of mind. The way this peace can be attained is explained henceforward  in a certain methodological and epistemological order.

 The whole process is of subjective import. In the second half introspection is affirmed. Deeper recesses of the self are brought up into view and scruyinised more carefully. Cosmology and psychology enter into the structure of the verse. A contemplatively neutral psycho-physical method and theory of knowledge are adopted. A science of values( axiology ) becomes explicit.Everything is viewed and commented upon in an absolute sense.

The verse sums up the position and restarts the discussion of Self-introspection or realization and begins the momentum for the second half.

Compare with verse 2. Here is reasserted what was expounded in it. In graded order, from earth through the subtler elementssuch as air, water and fire, towards mental order, the prospect deepens. From the elements which are physical primarily, the transition is to things of mental and spiritual significance. There unfolds a clear unitive epistemology. Indeed, the verse marks the beginning of the ascending dialectics. All factors, ranging from the grossest to the subtlest, arrange themselves intact and consritute the cycle of change and becoming in terms of pure Consciousness.

It is categorically asserted that everything is Arivu, Bodha, Consciousness or Awareness.

 

One Hundred Verses Of Self-Instruction (51-75)

(51)    Arivil irunnu orahantha aadhyam untay-
    varum ithinodu oru idanta vamayayum
    varum iva randulapangal poley maya-
    mara makhilam maraye ppadarnnidunnu.

From Awareness, the sense of “I” emerges first,
And as its counterpart “This” ness comes;
Like two creepers do they spread
And shroud the Maya tree entire.

Note : From knowledge first of all ego arises. Ego,s counterpart is “this” ness or awareness of the things that the “I” sense comes across. Like rwo creepers they entwine either side of the Maya tree, the world of appearances or physical nature.

“After the 50th verse the composition passes on to the end by beginning to cut the roots of Maya here.Maya in Vedanta is the principle of error or appearance. To learn truth, error is to be eliminated. Error is like a creeper by its thick growth hiding a tree’s stem. The first two broad divisions of error are the sense of “I”, egoism, and the sense of “this” ness cannot exist. They are like electricity and magnetic field, subjective and objective aspects of Awareness.

Here is an arresting image of integrated life with diverse trends. After this comes in the next verse the grand scenario of the dawning of Absolute Awareness or the sense of the Absolute.

 
(52)    Dhwani mayamay gaganam jhwalikkum annal-      anayum athinkal asesha drushya jalam;
    punar avite triputikku poorthi nalkum
    swanavum adangum itam swayam prakasam.

The firmament blazes radiant with Word content:
Manifests then in it all phenomena perceptible.
Thereafter ends the sound, tri-basic knowing
Completing; Self-luminous is the scene.

 Note : The primordial sky is illumined, followed by the profound sound of OM or pranava. Then all material things begin to take form. The tri-basic recognition of things is complete. Unitive reality dawns. Reverberation stops. Only a Self- illuminating effulgence- the Absolute-remains.

The Guru suggests a unique pre-figuration of creation  which seems to echo the Big Bang theory. The Biblical line “In the beginning was the word” is also relevant in the context. Poetry and philosophy blend ideally in this instance.

The second part of this Song of the Self is concerned with how realization is obtained. This can come only through inner experience. This verse scintillates with such inner experience. Sidhartha’s Enlightenment was a similar soul-stirring experience. Can all have such a unique experience? Yes, apparently.

Word content is OM, pranavam.

Tripudi : the three ways in which reality is apprehended. When this tri-basic prejudice is not , dawns with a supernatural glow genuine knowledge or Arivu which is the Absolute itself.

(53)    Ithil ezhum adima shakthi yingu kanu-       nnithu sakalm perum aadi beejamakum;
    matiyathilakki marannidathe maya-
    mathiyaruvaan mananam tudarnnitenam.

The primodial potency that in it lies
 Is the primal seed that begfot all we here see;
Merging mind in that, never forgetting
Maya-mind to end, continue contemplation.

Note : In the beginning of creation, there existed a basic creativity. That power is the seed,  the cause of the origin of all phenomena. Fix mind on that Viz. the Absolute, overcome the illusions that ignorance forges and proceed with one-pointed thought.

Reality is a self- luminous entity, as explained in the previous verse. It is a mental notion of the Absolute. Here the Guru examines it in the context of a living purpose.

Maya is error, actual or conceptual, in the human mind. It is the source of the world of appearances. Behind it also is the seed. Assuming names and forms, Maya has the power of creating a world of plurality or multiplicity.

The second part of the verse points out what one should do in self-realization viz. contemplation or sustained thinking.There are three ways of comprehension :sravana (hearing the wise ones ) manana (by cogitation ) nidhidhyasana (through intuition or sudden illumination- knowing the Absolute as if from inside It or as the Absolute within you )

(54)                                         Unarum avastha urakkil illa urakkam
    punar unarum pozhuthum sphurikkuveela;
    anudinam ingane randu madi maya-
    vanithayil ninnu purannu maridunnu.

In sleep, the wakeful state is obtained not,
And sleep is unfeltwhen again awake;
Like this, from the primal lass, Maya,
Both are born each day and alternate.

Note : Sleep cannot be when one awake. Vice versa also. Both these arise each day owing to maya or illusion. A third viz. dream is also usually mentioned. Here dream is merged with the two. It can manifest in both these states- as dream in sleep or day-dream.

Compare verses 5,6,7. There the state of consciousness in relation with sleeping, waking and thinking  was alluded to. In verse 7, it was remarked that the state of awareness was something mid-way between the states of waking and sleeping.

“Maya is to be understood in terms of the philosophy of India, especially that of Sankara, as a negative vertical factor, admitting  contradiction horizontally, but unity vertically,” “Pure consciousness when free from Maya content of names and forms becomes the same as the Absolute. Thus it is that we are directed to try to cut at the root of Maya function within the pure Absolute.”

(55)    Nediya  kinavu ithu nidra poley nithyam
    kedum ithupoley kinavum iprakaram
    kedum ithi kanukayilla, kevalathil
    peduvathinal anisam bramichidunnu.

A prolonged drean is this; each day
It dies like sleep; likewise is dream.
The nitwit doesn’t see it thus; in one alone
Being involved, always bewitched be.

Note : Life is like a dream, a long drawn-out one. Every day it dies like sleep. The same is the case with dream. The foolish one does not see this way.He concerned only with one viz. waking i.e. Jagrat, the world of apparent reality. Being too much involved in worldly concerns , he is completely in its grip.

There is continual flux of becoming in the creative evolution of the process of nature.

One alone : Jagrat- the waking state. The others are sushupti & swapna. The fourth stage is turiya.

(56)    Kadalil ezhum tira poley kayam oro-
    nnu udanudan eri yuyarnnu amarnnidunnu;
    mudivathinengu ithu hantha! Moola samvit
    kadalil ajasravum ulla karmam atre!

As in the sea manifests the wave,
Each trunk every instant surfaces, rises
And sinks. Where is end to it, alas !
In primal Awareness’ Ocean, such acts ever be.

Note : Like waves on the sea’s breast, each thing enters, dwells on the surface and then exists. This is a never ending process which manifests always in the ocean of the Absolute.

Here reconciles the plurality of souls and the comprehensive unity of all souls into one. Reconciling Jeevatma and Paramatma- individual and universal selves- the Guru gives here a unified, synthetic picture. The idea of the one and the many get reconciled in an overall notion of the Absolute awareness.The Absolute represents the collective cosmic consciousness of humanity in psychological terms.

Compare verse 3 which mentions that the elements are to be seen from the point of view of non-difference with the Self. The reference, as in verse 3 , to the ocean and the waves is significant. Motion or action- Karma-its infiniteness is like the ocean and the waves. Just as ocean is the one self and is basis for the  many waves, Absolute holds together individual selves and bodies.

(57)    Alayaru mazhil undu anantha maya-
    kalayithu kallya yanadhi karyamakum
    salilarasadi sareeram enthi nana-
    vulakuruvay uruvayi ninnidunnu.

Within the waveless ocean abides
This endless Maya art; it’s creative;
Beginningless cause is it : assumes forms like water and taste,
And remains manifest, as the core of many worlds.

Note : The idea of the previous verse is continued. In the ocean, waveless and calm, there is hidden the power to raise the waves.It is the art of Maya. It is creative. It is also the beginning. This Maya art takes different forms. It is the heart and cause of the endless phenomena.

The motion of the body that is born into the visible world is projected in the previous verse and reduced to pure Awareness. Here the same is viewed from the more virtual, negative or abstract and generalized view point. Everything is identified with the waveless ocean of pure or prime Awareness.

The cause and effect aspects of being are mentioned. Being is a process of flux. Becoming is Maya. There is the two-sided process of becoming.

Maya is the Absolute, only its negative form, both forming a unity. In these apparent opposites also there is oneness. This total non-duality of life in all its manifestations, material and physical, is the key-note of the Guru’s Advaita.

(58)    Navanavam innaley innu nale matte-
    ddhivasam ithingane chintha cheithitate
    aviratham enni yalannidunnathellam
    bramam oru bhedavum illa arinjitenam.

What, without thought, is counted endlessly
And measured anew as yesterday, today,
To-morrow, the other way are all confusion;
Know, there is difference none.

Note : We distinguish among yesterday, today, tomorrow etc. This is the result of wrong thought which causes confusion. There is no such difference.There is only unitiveness.

In this verse, the Guru goes one step further to abolish all sense of duality in the heart of the Absolute. All differences give place to a final synthesis or unity.

Waves, foam etc. have been there from the beginning, materializing and disappearing. So, each time they surface, is it right to adjudge them anew? To think so, is the result of ignorance.

 

(59)    Arivine vittatha nanumilla yenne-
    ppiriyukil illarivum prakashamatram
    arivu ariyunnavan ennu randum oorthal-
    oru porulam athil illa vadam ethum.

Apart from awareness, I am not; from me
Divorced, Awareness is not : it’s light alone;
Knowledge and the knower are the same reality;
There’s doubt none about it.

Note : Where do these diverse manifestations arise from? The answer is Arareness. Without it, I do not exist; conversely, if I do not exist, there is no awareness too. Therefore, Knowledge and I are the self-shining quintessence of consciousness. Knowledge and the one who knows it are the same kind of reality.

Anything to be real, within or without, must impact through the “I” sense which is the inner consciousness. “I” is nothing but Knowledge which shines by itself. Phenomena are only metamorphosed Knowledge.

The self that is the knower and the self that is known have a bi-polarity or dichotomy betwixt the two, though both are linked by Knowledge. The Guru recognizes the ambivalent interdependence between the self and its dialectical counterpart, the non-self. Verse 68 also takes up this idea non-dualistically, to reveal the self in its operational sense.

“The Guru here, after stating the law of reciprocal interdependence of the knower and the known, passes on to its theorems and corollaries in a graded and methodical fashion.”

(60)    Arivineyum mamathaiku adheenamakki-
  pparayumithin paramartham oorthidathe
                        parakilum appara tathwamennapolee-
  yarivariyunnavan annyamakuveela.

Awareness is mentioned as involved in the ego;
Tho’ said so, reckoning not its verity,
Just like the supreme Truth, Knowledge
To the known does not alien become.

Note : Many mentioned knowledge  as “my knowledge”. It is said so without reckoning the need to be truthful. In knowing the Absolute, there is no cleavage between knowledge and the knower. This unitiveness is beyond the grasp of the one who claims about “my knowledge”. Knowledge and “I” are one. Hence the possessive pronoun is redundant.

 

(61)    Velivishayam vilasunnu veru vera-
    yalavidum indriyamarnuu thante dharmam
    jalata yathingu digambaradi nama-
    valiyoduyarnnarivayi maridunnu.

Objects external shine, each from the other,
Owing to the measuring sense, which is nescience.
These arise in turn with names many,
Like land and the sky, and into higher knowledge change.

Note : External objects appear different from each other. That is so because of the sense which differentiates. This is the work of ignorance. Thus many objects with name and form materialize. And they produce different kinds of  knowledge. When consciousness prompts different senses, the spectacle of phenomena materializes. If the senses do not work goaded on by ignorance, there is no distortion. The Absolute shines in its pristine glory.

“ The events that fill consciousness in a state of contemplative flux or change or becoming is vividly pictured in this verse in neutral psycho-physical terms”.

The self lives and moves in the world of multiple interests. When the five senses appraise them, they deal with the world of appearance rather than with reality, and function on the side of ignorance. Change and becoming always take place within psycho-physical consciousness.

Pragmatism and mysticism find place together. However, Knowledge gains primacy above all material or practical considerations.

(62)    Paravasanai paratattwam entetenno-
    rkkarutarutennu kathipatonninale
    varumarivetu vara kathippathale
    paramapadam parichintha cheithitenam.

Which is the knowledge that could come,
By only asking befuddled, to remember not
That the Supreme Truth is mine? By mere talk
It doesn’t arise. On the State Supreme cogitate.

Note : The senses eclipse the unitive nature of awareness and thus fragments knowledge. Each sense stands in the way of knowing the true self. In fact, the prompting is to know name-forms. The senses obstruct the self from knowing the Supreme Truth. If it is allowed a free reign, what real knowledge could come?By mere talking we can’t get Truth. Contemplate the supreme Truth. Then only it can be realized.

“The Guru here points out that spiritual progress in the direction of absolute wisdom cannot come by mere repetitions of formulae, however correct they may be intellectually or valid by their meaning.”

Most people who call themselves religious are only interested in the outer forms of religious life. The doctrines and patterns of behaviour  implied, refer only to the world of outer values in some social or group life. These tend to fan rivalries and exclusive attitudes of mind.

True religion is a matter of profound thought and contemplation.

(63)    Arivil irrunna parathwamarnnitatee-
    yarivine yingariyunnatenniye than
    paravasanay ariveela panditan tan
    parama rahassyam itharu parthidunnu?.

The learned one, enslaved to sense,
Knows not here his supreme secret,
Else by knowing Knowledge from
Knowledge undifferentiated. Who discerns it?

Note : The one who gets full awareness totally identifies himself with it. Then no dichotomy exists. Awareness only can gain awareness. But one subject to the senses cannot know it. If the learned one is controlled by the senses, he fails to know the Supreme Truth. Very few understand this.

Read along with the previous verse, this complements and corrects any deflection from the strictly neutral position between orthodoxy and heterodoxy. The middle ground towards Self-realization is here suggested.

 Most religions err in being orthodox. Hence the question, who discerns this?

Verses 62 & 63 suggest the correct approach to Absolute Wisdom. The truly learned man is seldom orthodox or heterodox, but in between. Lord Buddha’s Middle path is an instance.

“ The majority of seekers of spirituality or wisdom get lost and fail to hold the balance.

(64)                                         Prativishayam Pratibandham eri mevu-
                                    nnithine nija smruthiye nirakarikku
    adi visada smruthiyal adeetha vidya-
    nidhi teliyunnathinilla neethihani.

This, which on each count increasingly
Hurdles face- thy memory power- disown;
Wisdom-treasure ultimate dawns through
Very lucid consciousness; it is unexceptional.

Note : Our consciousness is entangled in diverse memories. Get rid of those sense impressions. As a result, Awareness becomes pure. And then ultimate Wisdom dawns. This law is always true.

“There is a lucid form of pure memory transparent to purpose and what is past and gone for ever. Such a lucid form of retrospection with double reference to the past as well as to the future has the same effect as digging for a treasure-trove that is hidden under the ground and finding it.

 The Guru here accepts pure kind of retrospection or memory which is a kind of general Awareness. This also helps the purpose of contemplative self-realization.

(65)                                 Oru kuri nam ariyathatonnu mingi-
                             lluru maraval ariveelunarnnitellam
        arivavar illathirattathakayalee
                   yarumaye yarariyunnaho! Vichitram.

There’s here thing none that we don’t sometime know;
Fail to know owning to the veil thick;
None knows all these awakened; this wondrous dear,
Being boundless, who could know? It’s strange, alas!

Note : There is not a thing which we never can know. Some time or other we come to know all. It depends on the intensity of one’s effort. We fail to know because there is the thick veil of ignorance. Even to the one awakened to truth is lost some of the superficial forms of knowledge. The wonderful dear knowledge of Absolute Wisdom , which is boundless, cannot be known apart from it. Only by constant thought and effort can wisdom be attained. This is a strange state of things! Few people who claim to know, really know.

Our consciousness, whether individual or collective , must, in principle at least, contain all that has been the least meaningful in our past life. That is samskara or conditioning unit factors which colour our present vision, giving it a “reality” which is not really there. This is what is meant by the first line. The second line seems to contradict the first, by saying that ignorance stands in the way of knowing everything. The third line is still cryptic. It admits the impossibility of knowing all objects in this universe even if we are wakeful enough to take into our consciousness all that is possible to know. Actual knowing is different from inferential knowing. That draws a still narrower circle round our range of vision of things. The wondrous dear is that aspect of the Absolute not subject to the influence of memory aspects of consciousness. It is Knowledge Absolute and supreme. “ This is given only to the vision of the boldest adventurer in the realm of the spirit and constitutes the most precious aspect of human wisdom itself. The last line declares how rare it is to attain such positive wisdom.

 With assertions and their negations, this verse successfully outlines the hard task of Self-realization.

(66)    Ira muthalayavayennum iprakaram     
    varuminiyum; varavattu nilpatekam;
    arivatu namatu tanne mattu mella-   
    varumathu tan vativarnnu ninnidunnu.

Factors earthly always come again
The same way; sans arrival exists only One;
It is Awareness: That art we;
TakingIts form, all else too exist.

Note : Earthly factors or phenomena are subject to continuous flux and becoming. They recur as before. That which has no coming or going is Awareness. We are all part and parcel of it. All things else are also Its manifestation.

Unchanging reality is the Absolute It has a certain finalized form as Awareness. There is the One and the Changeless on the one hand and the many that hang together in the chain of causes and effects.

Knowledge, knower and known are the tri-basic aspects of truth as seen from the relativistic side, which are transcended in the unitive vision of the Absolute. This tri-basic aspect of knowledge is to be Vedantically finalized or reduced in terms of the vision of the Absolute.

 (67)    Gananayilninnu kavinjatonnu sada-
    ranamiva randum ozhinjorannya rupam
    ninavilumillatu nidrayinkalum me-
    linanagarathilu mengumilla noonam.

The one beyond reckoning; what is
Ordinary: besides these two
There exists not, cert, another form anywhere:
In thought, in sleep, in the City celestial.

Note : That which is beyond our capacity to conceive of and another which is commonplace- there are the two kinds of realities. A third kind does not exist, in thought, in dream or in the city of the Lord of Light, nay anywhere.

 There are two archetypal forms of knowledge. The first is the Absolute in its unitiveness. Notions of one and many cannot apply to it. It is perceptual or conceptual.. The other is actual. Between these, all reality is comprised. These components have to be put together, for us  to arrive at the normative notion of the Absolute which is all inclusive.

(68)    Aravavatakruti polahantha randa-
    yarivilum anghiyilum kadakkayale
    oru kuri yaryya yithinganaryya yaku-
    nnoru kuri yennunarenam oohashali.

 

Like the snake-rope form, as twain,
Enters ego into cognition and the limb-agent;
One sector is sacred, the other part profane-
Thus should to them the intuitive man awake.

Note : Into understanding and the Absolute, ego introduces distortion like the snake-rope form. One aspect is noble while the other is evil. One who has intuition should make such an assessment. The “I” consciousness becomes obsessed with external things, senses, mind  etc. The result is illusion. The rope is mistaken for a snake. The man with intuition must realize the mistake involved.

“ Duality in all respects, gross or subtle, has to be taken into account before it can be correctly merged in the notion of the non-dual Absolute. With the present verse the Guru enters into a series of verses dealing with the inner structure of contemplative consciousness viewed both cosmologically and psychologically”.

Verses 68 to 73 reveal the structure of the self in the context of the Absolute.

Snake-rope form : Classical Vedantic example for illusion. The pure thing –in- itself is the rope. The illusion of the snake is super-imposed in consciousness by ignorance.

“The ego sense may be said to oscillate within the amplitude of two poles characterized by the snake-rope analogy which the Guru resorts to with great advantage for explaining his own scientific philosophical standpoint”

“Knowledge is the pole of subsistence while the ego sense conditioned by the physical body…. Is the pole of existence.”

 Angi is translated as limb-agent.

The intuity man alone is capable of wakeful or true Awareness. While fully aware of the duality, he is also able to see the unity in it, in the brighter light of a more focused attention. Only such a man will succeed in the study of Vedanta.

(69)    Sruti mutalam turagam toduthoratma-
    pratimayezhum karanapraveenanalum
    rathiratha meriyahantha ramyarupam
    pratipurame perumaridunnajasram.

Into libido’s chariot, which bears the Self-image,
Yoked with horses like hearing, and driven
By the master-mind, enters ego and indulges
Always outside, in beauteous forms’ pursuit.

Note : Ego is the sight seer. He enters into the chariot which is desire. To it are hitched the horses which are the five senses like hearing. The coachman is the inner mind which is the shadow of the self. Thus it is that ego ever moves, indulging in physically attractive experiences.

 If the mind and the senses are allowed free play, the chariot is likely to fall into ruts and holes, causing injury to the rider. This is a beautiful image. What is stressed is the need for controlling the mind and the senses which are the seat of passion and gross desire.

Libido is rati or gross physical desire.

 The central reality in this verse is the self image (atma pratima ). This self image is the most direct representative of the notion of the Absolute.

“ On the Southern Indian soil the sight of such a ceremonial procession as seen in this verse is familiar to the common man and what is more, in the Upanishads themselves this same imagery has been employed in several places, comparing the self with the charioteer and the senses with the horses.”

Here the Guru provides an integrated notion of the Self in a fully contemplative and absolutist context with a scientific status given to it , although put in the language of antique imagery.Compare the Puri Jagannath Car festival.

The physical basis of the self is libido as understood in modern psycho- analytic literature such as that of Freud, Jung or Adler.

This verse highlights “the perfect aloofness and neutrality of the pure thinking substance that corresponds to the highest Absolute Self.

In beauteous form’s pursuit : this act does not belong to the perfectly neutral Self, but its negative counterpart, distinguished as the “I” sense.

 

 

(70)    Oru rati tanney yahantha yindriyantah:
    karana kalebara mennitokke yayi
       viriyumathinnu viramamengu vera-
     marivavan ennarivolam orthidenam.

The same libido blossoms as ego,
Sense, inner instrument, body, all else.
Where’s end to it? Remember, till it’s known
He(Self) is different kind of knowledge.

Note : Gross desire blossoms as ego, senses, inner mind, body etc. This goes on uninterrupted. Is there end to it? Yes, only when it is known that He (Self) is different kind of knowledge.

The “I” sense , when too much indulgent in worldly pleasure, is transformed into ego. Very few can withstand the promptings of ego, mind etc. which are unreal.

“The Saiva Siddhanta and the Paramartha school of Samkhya have all their varied versions of the process of unraveling of the elements of the self. Ranging from the libido on one side to the object of attraction or interest is the picture presented by the guru here. The Guru’s version excels in that it conforms more to the findings of experimental psychology and analytical psychology of our times.”

(71)                 Savana mozhinju samatwamarnnu nilpee-
Lavaniyil aarumanadi leelayatre;
Aviralamakum ithakavey yarinjal-
Avanatiratta sukham bhavichidunnu.

On this earth, bereft of becoming, none remains
In equalized state; a beginningless play is all this:
To the one who knows this unbroken thing
In its entirety, comes boundless happiness.

Note : Becoming is day by day action in relation to the physical realities. None can easily escape this and reach a state of immobility and equilibrium. This, indeed, is the never ending sport of the Absolute. The one who fully grasps this process, inherits unlimited happiness.

 If one cultivates detachment and is affected neither by happiness nor its opposite, that person gains poise and strength. Yoga is considered one of the means to reach this equalized state. Through yoga, it is possible to attain Awareness, which causes intense poise as well as illumination . The net result is happiness.

Verses 69, 70, 71 give a connected account of how enlightenment or self-realization comes. The chariot procession of libido symbolically outlines the psycho-physical elements. When wisdom dawns, phenomena are stilled or reabsorbed into the transparent quality of the Absolute.

 This verse visualizes the eternal game that goes on.

“ Knowledge and wisdom can equate or cancel out or abolish rival tendencies or trends in the innermost spirit of man, to establish the state of equilibrium referred to. Such is the way of Self-realization here indicated, which is conducive to unbounded happiness which all people seek at all times.

Compare the Buddhist concept of nirvana. A similar state of seeing into the life of things is meant in the context.

(72)    Kriyayoru kooritavidhya; kevalam chi-
    nmayi marukooritu vidya; mayayale
    niyatham ithingane nilkkilum pirinja-
    dwaya para bhavana turryamekidunnu.

One side is action which is nescience basic,
The other side, pure mind-stuff which is knowledge;
Though so remains, ordered by Maya, when broken up,
The unitive supreme concept of Turiya yields.

Note : Karma is one mode. It is basically motivated by ignorance. Vidya is the other aspect. It originates with the mind-stuff. This distinction is owing to the power of Maya. However, they can be integrated and unitiveness arrived at. That is the fourth way of experience. The upshot is the consciousness of the unitive Supreme.

As usual, the Guru abolishes duality and integrates contrary factors.

Consciousness is subject to two main and alternating phases or pulsations. One is with elements that are overt. In this there is action and reaction in the mechanistic sense. It is basically the peripheral, inert, gross and unthinking aspect. Darkness, nescience, ignorance, are its distinguishing characteristics.

The other side is the pure zone of thought. It is Kevala (pure, lonely), Chinmaya (made up of mind stuff).

The Guru’s concept of Maya is unique. It is not merely the negative aspect of darkness or nescience. It is supposed to have a vikshepa (projecting) and avarana (veiling) function. One is positive and the other is negative. The Guru emphasizes the double function of Maya. Maya is, perhaps, the same as the Absolute.There is the possibility of Maya being absorbed into the full transparency of the Absolute.

(73)    Oru porulingal anekamuntanekam
    porulil orarthvum enna buddhiyale
    arivil adangum abedamayitella-
varum ariveela ati gopaneeyamakum.

Of one thing, there may be many, as in several objects
One meaning subsists. By this logic, all these,
With difference none, Consciousness partakes of.
All know not this: it’s deeply hidden.

Note : From one thing arises many. Likewise many things have one meaning. This is true to reason. Similarly without difference everything is included in knowledge. Not everybody knows this secret. In fact all phenomena are different manifestations of Arivu.

The dialectics of the one and the many is displayed here. The primary link behind all things is unraveled. The idea of unity depends on the notion of multiplicity. When the one and many cancel out each other, there remains the numinous value called the Absolute.

Contemplative insight is needed to penetrate into this secret of secrets, says the Guru. At least such knowledge is not common to all.

(74)    Potiyoru bhuvil asankhyam appotikkul-
    ppedumoru bhuvitililla bhinna bhavam
    Jadam amarunnatupoley chitthilum chi-
    ttudalilum ingitinal ithorkkil ekam.

On earth are particles innumerable and inclusive
Of these particles is this earth; no exception to it.
Even so, the inert in the mind-stuff stays and the mind
In the body. Thus, when thought of, they are one.

Note : There are countless units of dust particles on this earth. And the earth is a conglomerate of these particles. Between the one and the many there is no difference. This is exactly the relationship between inner mind (self) and the body. They are part and parcel of each other. The essential unity of the two is undeniable.

The same subtle dialectics implied in the relation between the one and the many which was epistemologically considered in the previous verse is now taken up again in its ontological implications. Modern science, especially particle and nuclear physics, recognizes a subtle reciprocity of correspondence as between the micro & macro cosmos.

 Here the Guru adopts a thorough- going  epistemological and methodological stand point. He anticipates a unified science here wherein mind and matter (Chitta &Jada) could reciprocally comprise each other on neutral ground.

(75)    Prakruti jalam tanu phenam aazhi yatmaa-
    vaham aham ennalayunnatu oormmijalam
    akamalararnnarivokke muthu tan tan
    nukaruvatam amritayathingu noonam.

    Nature is water, body foam, self the deep,
    The rumbling with in as “I” “I” is cluster of waves,
    All the knowledge the “inner power” gains is the pearl:
    What each and each imbibes here becomes nectar indeed!

Note: The imagery of the ocean helps further to clinch the fact of non-duality. Nature is water, the physical manifestations are the foam, the sea is the self, the waves which lash one after the other are the ego. The inner flower is the consciousness. The knowledge it absorbs is pearl. Each person’s happiness is the nectar he gets from the ocean of Samsara.

These figures of speech fully validate the basic assumption of the oneness of life.

  Inner flower : akamalar, the mind - stuff

  Nectar  :  amritu, the happiness in life.

“The ocean of consciousness conceived neutrally absolutistically has an essential nounmenal  unity under its apparent phenomenal diversity… The way in which the structure of the total consciousness emerges from its own absolutist background of boundless infinitude is what is represented in the verse here and also, in verse 77, where the same is examined from a  slightly different perspective”.

“There is nothing so dear to man as his own soul losing which and gaining of all the three worlds, would still be meaningless. Immortality and happiness are synonymous and interchangeable terms.”

One Hundred Verses Of Self-Instruction (76-100)

 (76)    Manal alavattu chorinja vapiyin me-
    laniyaniyay alaveesidunna vannam
    anrutha parampara veesi yantharatma-
    vine yakame bahuroopamaakkidunnu.

As in a pond into which measureless sand falls
Waves emanate and spread ring after ring, so too,
By raising a chain of deceptive sights
The inner self  into multiple forms is within turned.

Note:Suppose much sand falls into a pond with static water. The result is, one after the other, waves arise. Like that, by creating a multiplicity of untrue manifestations, the self is transformed into many entities.

The self is pure and unruffled. The inert bodies are those transient things which manifest and move within the calm inner self.

Being and becoming are here juxtaposed by a mixed metamorphical device. The unitive picture revealed is simple and transparent. The global picture is one that takes place in time.

The inner self is antaratma of the man in contemplation. From its original purity and unity it is transformed to multiplicity and degradation, losing its spiritual elevation. Such a self is pictured with the analogy of the pond.

 (77)    Paramoru vinnu paranna sakthi katta-
    marivanalan jalam aksham indriyartham
    dharani yitingane yanchu tatwamay ni-
    nneriyum ithinte rahassyam ekamakum.

The transcendental ultimate is sky, wind
The power expansive, consciousness fire,
Sense-organs water, the object of senses being earth.
As principles five, they keep on burning. Its secret is One alone.

Note: The sky is the ultimate reality which supports all phenomena. The all-prevading wind which emanates from it is the life force. Intellect works closely in league with it. Again, there is the outflow of water, which is the mind. Above all, there is the perceptible form of the earth. These five resplendent parts are ultimately the Self itself. That is the one secret.

Life has different manifestations, but all these have unity, because they are all part and parcel of the Absolute.

“The same unitive scheme of correlation of aspects of reality from the contemplative point of view is considered again here from a more centre level of personality in another perspective. The two previous verses viewed the same factors of correlation from a more hypostatic level. Here there is a descending dialectics which puts finally the senses and sense perception as close as possible with the element called the Earth as the object.

 

(78)    Maranavumilla purappumilla, vazhvum
    narasuraradiyum illa; nama roopam;
    maruvil amarnna mareechi neeru pol ni-
    lpporu porulam, porulalla ithorthitenam.

Death is not, nor birth nor existence,
Nor man, gods and other ilk:
All name-form: a thing manifest like mirage-water
Of the desert: not substantial; hark this.

Note: There is no birth nor death nor existence. Neither is there man or god. All are name and form. The best analogy is the mirage in the desert-a will O’- the whisp, illusion of the eyes. All the above are, therefore, unreal.

Physics claims that nothing is lost. Energy takes only new forms. Birth connotes taking a new form. And death is the ceasing of one. All these are temporary becomings. Everything is subject to transformation.

The Guru’s speculation soars one degree higher with this verse. Previously, cosmology and psychology were used to bring out the notion of the Absolute.The previous verse begins the process by merging the five aspects of nature into a central one. Speculation soars since contemplation is able to see the unity behind the diversity of phenomena.

Name and form are alone here. Birth and death are the frame of reference merely nominally. Men, gods and the other entities are effaced even before name-form residue. Denizens of space, of mythology, are swept away. The stage is thus set for the contemplative verities to be examined hereafter.

The Guru stops short of abolishing name and form. All plurality depends on name and form. After name and form what? The Guiru determines the status of reality left when aspects of appearance through name and form are abolished. For this he projects the example of the mirage. It has not value content, being only appearance of water. Dry sand is existential basis. The mirage is not only optical illusion but also connotes emtiness of value. The false is seen by the senses.

“.. the Guru like Sankara, gives no value-content to mentations and appearances, but wishes to lead us to the pure absolute core of Self-consciousness itself, which is alone existence, subsistence and value, properly speaking.”

 Reality is a thing and not really a thing, says the Guru. That is significant. Maya vadins consider reality as false. But the Guru, along with that, also admits its reality. That is a concession to the empiricist or realist thinker. After this finally establishes non-dual reality.

(79)    Janisamayam sthitiyilla , janmiyannya
    kshanamathil illi, itu irrippateprakaram?
    hananavum ingane tanne yakayale
    jananavumillitu chitprabhavam ellam.

At birth time, there’s no being;
And the next moment, the one born is not.
How could he be? Death also is such;
Hence birth is also not. Mind stuff’s might is all.

Note : There is perpetual change. Also metamorphosis always. At the time of birth, the thing does not exist. The born thing is changed the next moment and evolves further. How could these exist? The conclusion is logical. There is no birth. All are manifestations of the power of thought.

“Here we have a verse highly remniscent of the Eleatic philosophy of Parmenides and Zeno which was later restated by Plato in words of Socrates. It was given to Henry Bergson in recent years to revert after centuries to this way of thinking which boldly attempts to face and solve the innate paradox of life and existence.”

The first line is an apparent paradox, but none the less true in the context of the evolutionary change, which takes place from moment to moment. There is Heraclitus saying that one cannot enter the same river twice. “Here Narayana Guru reveals a fully modern scientific attitude.”

(80)    Sthitigatipoley virodhiyaya srushti-    
    sthitilayamengoru dikkil otthu vazhum?
    Gatiyiva moonninum engumillitorthal
    Ksitimulayava girumatramakum

How could creation, existence & dissolution,
Being opposites like standing & walking, co-exist?
These three have becoming no where. When this
Is remembered, earth and the like mere words be.

Notes : Opposites like standing and walking cannot simultaneously take place. Such is the exclusiveness of coming into being, existence and the ultimate exit. These three cannot take place simultaneously in the same context. That means they are valid.If this is acknowledged, one conclusion is inevitable. Earth etc are only words, unreal name-forms.

Srishti, Sthithi, Laya are the three stages of becoming.

“The simplest of mental events, without any tangible content is all that may be said to remain when we think of birth, creation or death…”

This is already stated in the previous verse.

 

(81)    Prakruti pirinjoru kooru bhoktru roopam
    sakalavumayi veliye samullasikkum
    iha paramam oru kooridantayale
    vikasitamam itu bhogya vishwamakum.

Nature divides itself, one part looming outside,
Shining altogether as the enjoyer’s form;
Another part here, by “this” ness expands,
Which is the enjoyable universe.

Note : here nature is thought of dividing itself into two parts. One part as man, beast and God enjoys happiness and sorrow and shines as the enjoyer. In the other part is the “this” sense. It brings into existence the multitudinous things for enjoyment. That is the universe with its physical attributes.

Man is related to nature in two principal ways. The relation is established through the interest that a man might take in life, whether subjectively or objectively understood. Nature is here viewed from a neutral psycho-physical standpoint where mind and matter are given equality of status.

 The two value worlds of Nature meet in the central self which is the enjoyer. Here we have an important correlation for a normative notion of the Absolute in the context of Self-Realization.

(82)    Arani kadanjezhum agni poley yarai
    vavaril irunna athirattezhum vivekam,
    parama chidambara marnna bhanuvay ni-
    nneriyum, athinnu irayayidunnu sarvam.

Like the flame that spurtson rubbing sticks together,
In those who seek arise wisdom limitless,
Which, as the sun shining in the ultimate mind sky,
Steadily burns; into its prey everything turns.

Note : The imagery of brushing sticks together to make fire harks back to the two aspects of nature projected in the previous verse. Pre-historic man made fire by brushing sticks together. Like that limitless wisdom dawns in those who search for it. The fire burns up all ignorance. Even becoming ceases to be. The two sticks correspond to the two aspects of the mind. While one aspect is gripped by mundane affairs, the other speculates on inner truth. Just as the two sticks burn in the fire ignited, these two sectors of the mind in action cancel each other out. Then the enlightened Self shines with the primal glory of the Sun.

Relativistic nescience gets absorbed and cancelled out when Absolutist Knowledga or full wisdom prevails.

“ The man who is engaged in the incessant research of Absolute Truth arrives at his prize not in slow graded instalments or degrees. Wisdom is a flame that bursts out in its brilliance when the required intensity of thought is arrived at.

Compare Lord Buddha’s Enlightenment or Sambodhi.

Text books of meditation indicate that one attains perfection  after much practice and rigorous regimentation. But the Guru , from his own experience too, opts for the heaven-sent moment when the white light of eternity suddenly bursts forth in the consciousness of the dedicatedseeker.

The negative and positive aspects of nature, all manifested things, become absorbed and burnt up in the conflagration of the fire of wisdom that is described  here. All dualities vanish in the unitive Absolute.

(83)    Udayum irrikkum udikkum onnu mari-
    thudarum ithu ingu udalin swabhavam aakum
    mudiyilirunnu ariyunnu moonum atma
    vitarattu monnitu nirvikaramakum.

Split, exist, arise –these, in turn,
Go on: such is the nature of the body.
Of these three, sitting on the crest,
The Self knows; this One uncleft is unmoved:

Note : To be destroyed, to exist, to resurrect- these repeat non-stop in the evolutionary process. There is mind-sense sitting atop and watching these metamorphoses. That is the self.  It doesn’t know sorrow, because It is beyond emotional nexus. Still, It is responsible for the physical world we know.

These are the three main stages in the cyclic repetition of life in the body.

The wheel of life : Samsara charka in Sanskrit lore, the wheel mentioned in Gita and the Dharma charka known to the Buddhists imply revolving and alternating movement.
 
(84)    Arivathinal avanee vikaramunte-
    nnarulum ithorkkil asathyam, ullatu urvee-
    niravadhiyay nilayattu nilpatellam-
    arivil ezhum prakruti swaroopamakum.

It’s said that, owing to cognition, there’s earthy feeling:
If cogitated, it is false; what is, is sod;
All the unstable entities innumerable that exist,
Are nature configurations, inherent in Awareness.

Note : We say earth has many feelings, because we know them. In truth, these feelings are unreal. The earth certainly exists. However , the countless things in nature that we come across are the different name-forms nature produces in knowledge.

A subtle but common philosophical error of an epistemological and methodological order is what the Guru here wishes to point out. We tread on earth in every day experience. This felt reality is not the actual. The error here is like a child mistaking a mirror image for the original. One cannot jump from a map to the real ground. As Sree Ramakrishne put it, “by shaking a Calender showing a rainy day, one cannot make water fall.”

(85)    Nizhal oru bimbam apekshiyatey nilpee-
    lezhum ulakenghum abhimbam akayale
    nizhalum athillitu nerumalla vidwa-
    nezhutiyidum phani poley kanumellam.

No shadow exists undependent on a model.
As the manifest-dissolving world nomodel has,
Neither shadow nor reality is it; all is seen
Like the snake a gifted artist draws.

Note : For a shadow to form, there must be a solid substance on which light plays. It is seen that the external world comes into being and then vanishes. Therefore the apparent world can’t be either a model or a shadow. To say that it manifests, then disappears, may not be true. Indeed, to one who seeks truth, the world is as insubstantial as the picture of a snake drawn by a good artist. And if we take the external world for a picture- snake, there is no need to be much concerned about it.

 Philosophical speculation all over the world has tried to face the problem of reality. The world of reality and the world of appearance are often juxtaposed and contrasted in Vedanta. To that duality, the Guru here tries to find an answer. In verse 20 the duality was denied.It was also pointed out in verse 80, that the earth and other things were mere name or word. Here the complimentory view is stated. Reality is nothing more than the creative urge of an artist, who gives the outline of an apparent reality, even when it has no real content.
 
 Reality and appearance both cancel themselves out within the newtrality of the Absolute.

(86)    Tanu muthalaayatu sarvam onnilonnil-
    anrutavumayatinaley yannyabhagam
    anudinam asthamiyate irikkayale
    punarrta roopamai polinjidunnu.

The body and all other things, one in another,
Have no being; hence untrue too.
As the other Part exists day by day uneclipsed,
With verity’s profile revived, It thrives.

Note: The material  phenomena are complex. They are different from each other. Hence they are unreal. The other part, namely Awareness, remain always alert and shining. It doesnot wax or wain. It is active through the Self, and remains in the form of Truth. It alone is true and flourishing.
 The Unviverse divides itself into two namely viz, one who sees and the things seen. The seen things are diverse and contradictory. If the seer is not willing to see them, they cease to exist. They are the handwork of Maya. The Seer or the Self remains constant. Hence It or the Unviersal from of It viz, the Absolute alone is real.
 In verses 36 and 37, reference has been made to the ‘same’ and the ‘other’, which are the two ways of  knowing open to man’s intelligence. The knotty question as to the relation between the one and the many is the sought to be answered. In this verse the former part deals with the horizontal view of reality while the latter is concerned with the vertical. The two kinds of verity put together constitute the paradox of life. This is indicated as the inexplicable in the next verse.
 “We know that Scholasticism has vainly tried to determine whether God created the species or the genus. Did God think of the particular and is the author of evil in the actual sense? No satisfactory philosophical answer has been found to this day. The hand of God has been revealed to none, while philosophers dispute and theologies of different religious group wage wars”.

(87)    Thaniye ithokkeyumundu; tammil oro-
     rinam itharangalil illayiprakaram
    tanu mutalayatu sattumalla, yorthal-
    anruthavum alla atu avachyamayidunnu.

Taken alone, all these be; each kind
Is not in others mutually. Viewed thus,
Body and else are not real and also
In verity not lacking. Beyond words is this!

Note: Take things in nature one by one. They appear to be real. But if we seek to find one in another, it is clear there is no such interdependence. Approached  this way, it is difficult to say body etc are real or not real. This illusory scenario is difficult to comprehend.
 Here the difficulty and failure of predication is highlighted. The Guru indicates that the reality of objects is unpredictable because of difference and agreement with some central philosophical norms.
 “There is a central paradox at the core of life itself by which what is true and what is false present the contradictory character of each other. Truth would appear false and vice versa. They are the obverse and reverse of the same coin represented by the Absolute which transcends paradox and all the possibilities of paradox”.
 In the next verse, Guru uses the technical term of Vedanta viz. Maya, which is the same principle of uncertanity as it covers all possibilities of error. Maya is the uncertain negative principle. The Guru concept of Maya is original. It is the negative manifestation of the Absolute.

(88)    Sakalavum ullathu tanney tatwa chinta-
    grahan itu sarvavum ekamay grahikkum;
    akamukhamai ariyaikil mayayam van-
    paka palatum bramamekidunnu param.

All things are real enough. He who has
Mastered philosophy, agnises all these as One.
If by inwardlook this is not learnt, the terrible spite,
Maya, inflicts gross puzzlements diverse.

Note: In all things in here, apart from the transient name-that form, the pure essence. Hence all things have reality. The learned one understand this unitive aspect. Knowledge comes only through probing inwards. If knowledge does not surface and the sense of the Infinite not inhered, the offshoot will be utter confusion, caused by the arch deceiver, Maya.
 Here the Guru accepts the common sense we of palpable reality. Persons who are cotent with appearances are welcomed to lead a life which might be full of errors. To avoid error at the lower and higher levels of understanding, one has to take an inward contemplateive view of reality. That is the philophical view.
 In the preceeding 87 verses, the Guru has examined life problems in a certain order. And now is projected the concept of Maya. It is the inclusive name given to all possibilities of philosophical error the mind is proned to get into.
 Adi Sankara is known as Maya Vadin. Ramanuja puts forward seven main objections to this theory or doctrin. Indeed, Maya is neither a theory nor a doctrine. It is only a term for a negative principle of uncertitude. Hegel supports his dialectical absolutist stand with such negation.
 “Ramanuja gave importance to devotion to God while Sankara gave primacy to Wisdom. The difference between them is there for negligible as belonging to their particular method of developing the notion of the Absolute.
 Maya is a concept known to the Upanishads. The use of the term by the Guru is to be taken as but normal. It is a term standing for all categories of error preventing the apprehension of the Neutral Normative Absolute.

 The Guru recommends an interiorized view. Bergson also recommends the sam inner rather than out view of reality.  

(89)    Arivilirunna sadasthi yennasamkyam
    poriyilaki bbhuvanam sphurikkayale
    arivine vittoru vasthu annyam alle-
    nnariyanam eeyarivu ikyaroopyam ekum.

As out of knowledge arise sparks innumerable
Of being and non-being and illumine the world,
Agnise, outside of knowledge, not a thing exists.
Such knowledge uniformity yields.

Note: Here knowledge is consecrated finally as the be-all and end-all of life. It can be termed differently as Infinite, Absolute, God etc.
 Knowledge is ultimate  Awareness or basic conciousness. It is the source as well as cause of all. From it emanate umpteen sparks-positive and negative, of being and non-being. These, like the sun’s rays, brighen the universe. All is conciousness. There is no other thing. This unitive notion produces a sense of oneness and uniformity. Here the Guru categorically states his logically alert non-dual stance.
 As Gandhiji’s said God is Truth, the Guru sayd knowledge is Truth. It is also power. When one knows the Self  or the Soul or the Universe, he is armed with the power of right action.
 In this verse, Maya is described as both sat (existent) and asat (not real). Further it has a negative principle of indeterminism as well. How could the double sided concept of Maya be reconciled with the unitive and globally understood Absolute? This issue has caused difference among Vedantist’s .
 Ramanuja has questioned the concept. His Visishta Adwaitha doctrine gives primasy to effect as much as to material causes. Adi Sankara puts stress on the cause against the effect. The Guru, by the choice of his expamle, bridges the gulf between these two rival schools of Advaithins.
 “By apt analogy the Guru is here able to bring to light the sublte relation that exists between the Absolute and the relative aspects of the same reality. The phenomenal world as the result of two-sided Maya is the secondary aspect of this full Absolute and it is because of its pluse and minus aspects meeting that the emergence of the Universe that we can see or experience comes into view ot looms into our conciousness.

(90)    Anrutam orasthitaye maraikkukilla enna-
    anubhavam undu sadasthi yennivannam
    anupadam asthitayal ithavrutam sad-
    ghanam athinale kalebaradi kaaryyam.

What has no reality basis eclipses not what exists:
Experience this vouches for . As being and non-being,
By existence it is at every step enveloped.
Factors like the body are, hence, sacred stuff.

Note: Untruth or ignorance can never hide what is true. Experience proves this. Truith, as being and non-being, at every step is convered and protected by existence. Therfore even inert things like the body are sacred. They are transformed aspects of the Infinte.
 “The verse says that anrtam (what exists outside of world order or reality) cannot hide astita(the condition of being or existing) . Truth is what proves itself by entering experience”.

(91)    Priya vishayam prati cheitidum prayatnam
    niyatavum angane tanne nilkayale
    priyam,ajam, avyayam, aprameyam, eka-
    dwyam ithuthan sukhamarnnu ninnidunnu.

As strivings for the sake of something dear
Remain as such ever, this love itself-
Unborn, unspent, unlimited, unique, one
And secondless,-endures as one’s happiness.

Note: All living beings always strive for the sake of things dear to them. This is an unchanging fact. Hence all should seek love which has no beginning and end, which is non-dual and eternal. It is the fountain souse of happiness. That love is the Self or the Absolute. What is dear viz, the self is the one thing people strive to identify and cherish.
 “In this and the nest two verse (92 & 93) the Guru is able to establish a link between the highest of the human values and the ontological aspect of the same interms of Self.”

(92)    Vyayamanayate velikku velacheiyum
    niyamam irippatukontu nithyamakum
    priyamakame piriyate yundu ithinnee
    kriya yoru kevala bahya lingamakum.

As there’s the law of effort external
Suffering no loss, so within is
Eternal Love parting never: to It
Is this action a basic outer sign.

Note: How is it that we enjoy happiness? Who enjoys it? It is the Self, by menas of incessant action. All of us work continuously. Human beings cannot stop working. It is a law of nature. It suffers no exception. The reason why it is so is that within us is Eternal Love. It prompts action. Our external work indicates the existence of love within. Our karmas  are the external symnbols which indicate the core of happiness inherent in us. Therfore it is clear that the Self, the repository of love, is the dearest value of existence.
 There is in phiciscs the law of conservation of energy. The Guru’s refernce to the fact of external effort causing no loss whatsoever confirms to this law. Modern Thermo Dynamics also accepts the convertibility of matter into energy and vice versa. The law for his contemplative metaphysical theme mentined by the Guru conforms to the above concepts. Modern Science helps throw light on the nature of the thinking-substance also. That is what we are concerned with in this verse.
 In the very first verse, this souce of  all action was referred to as karu. Through the intervening verses it has been possible to grasp the central idea, which the Guru conceives as the reality which reconciles matter and spirit. Nature itself is shown to have a subjective aspect(verse 81) that was immanent and transcendent at the same time. In the Advaitha Vedanta tradition, the Guru consistently develops his subject combinig the two aspects of the Iha (immanent) and the para (transcendent).
 “The language used by the Guru thus catches up with what is known to link experimental and non-experimental or symbolic worlds”.
 

(93)                                         Chalamudal atta tanikku tante atma-
vilum athikam priya vasthu ella annyam,
vilasidu athmagatha priyam vidathee-
nilayil erippathu kontu nithyam atma.

For one to whom the changeful body exists not,
Nothing else is a more dear thing than his Self.
As, in this state, Self-induced love-active
Remains unlost, eternal be the Self.
Note: Those who think deeply understans that all external movements and enquiries  are engendered in the Self. To them the physical body and the external phenomena are not coveteable things. Always people strive for the Self’s happiness and contentment. None also wants to geoparadisethe Self. From these it is evident that the Self is the most beloved entity in man.
 The Absolute status of the Self is here established by following up the line of argument started in verse 91. The Self, without the ego element, which is changeable and transient, but as a pure witness inside and lasting, has been described in verse 12. Other ambivalent factors in deper seats of body consciousness where reffered to in verse 68 and 72. Thus the Self is projected as the highest of human values.
 Love of Self and selfishness have to be distinguishes.
 In the Guru’s Darsanamala, he defines Bhakti (Chapt.VIII verses 5,6,7). There he treats unitively anata(value factors) atma (Self) and Brahman (The Absolute) as interchangeable terms.

(94)                                              Ulakavum ullathumai kalarnnu nilkkum-
Nila valuthayoru neethikeedu ithathre
Arutiyidan arutathavagmano go-
Chara, ithilengu charichidum pramanam.

The way in which the world and what’s real
Remain mixed up is a big iniquity;
A word-mind spectacle impossible to bound!
How could in this be relevant apparent facts?

Note: It is strange that the eternal Self remains entangled in the moving and changing physical body. It appears to be a paradox. This union cannot be scientifically proved. It is a word-mind spectacle difficult to explain. It has to be understood by intuition. No proof thereof would be forthcoming. Authority and precedent donot help in explaining this reality.
 The Absolute is presented here both as appearance and as the Reality behind it. Their relationship is “an enigma, the knote, or the question mark that is said to be life in it total aspect. Gaina Syad-vada (May-be-may-be-not) approach reflects this puzzlement”.
 The Guru says that reality is presented to our intelligence as a great “iniquity”. This inquity is the same negative principle of Maya, examined in various verses previously.
 Pramana translated as right opinion. It is different from Aristotelian logic.
 “Both Indian logic which thinks in pure subjective terms and western logic which inclines to objectivity through syntactical elements of language, donot avail in cutting the Gordian knot.”
.

(95)                                     Vipulathayarnnu vinoda vidya maya-
Vyavahithayai vilasunna viswaveeryam
eval eval ingu avtherna ayidum ta-
nnavayavam antta kadaha kodiyakum.

She is the universal might, shrouded by Maya,
Of skill expansive for entertainment,
And She here is incarnate, Her limbs
Forming ten million cosmic entities.

 

Note: The absolute is the Universal might which has the skill for creation. The creative process is conceived as entertainment, as leela a sleight of hand, of the Absolute concealed behind the veil of Maya. This might becomes active in different ways. Thus comes into being the innumberable worlds of time and soace. Indeed all the cosmic entities are the transformed limbs of the Infinite power.
 This verse attempts to explain how this world came into being. The scientist, the philosopher and the theologian have tried to give the answer. The Rig veda and the Bible attempt. In the Upanishadic context, Maya is the female principle of creation or illusion. Mind and its ignorance are attributed to his female or negative principle of nesience.
 Theistic schools of philosophy such as that of Ramanuja prefer to give the function of creation to God.
 The idea of leele or the sport of God in creation is also not known.
 The Guru here adheries to the same tradition. Without deflecting from the consumption of Maya as a negative or female principle of creation, he lifts it to the same height as the Absolute. The Absolute is finally neither negative nor positive. What the Guru does is to derive the negative Absolute from the Neutral Absolute. He does not violate the norms of any school of thought. Negative neseince is the origin of manifested Universe.
 In Sanskrit there is reffernece to the cosmic e.g.Brahmanda. In the nyaya – vaisesshika schools of Indian phylosohy, there is the concept of paramanu(the ultimate real particle). Leibniz too has the same kind of unit conception. Modern science also projects such ideas like atomat,molecule, electron and proton. The Guru uses somewhat identical notions when he introduces the word andakadaham.
There the one and the mnay are juxtaposed and their non-duality assumed.

    (96)                                        Anuvum akandavum asthi nasthi  enne-
Ganae vilasunnu iru bhagamayi randum;
Anayum anathara athsi nasthi ennee-
Yanibhavavum nilayattu ninnupokum.

The atom and the Infinite, as being and non-being,
Both this way shine forth, as either side;
Having reached that stage, the experience too
Of being and becoming does cease, validity lost.

 

Note: Experience of the world is contractory. There is atom , which is the smallest part. Conversely there is the vast Infinite. On  either side are existence and non-existance. Then the experience of being and becoming also disappers, having lost their relevance. Finally what is left is Unitive Truth.
 The dialectics of one and the many was treated in the previous verse. Now it is left to resolve the role of the part and the whole or the big and the small. “These paradoxes were known to Zeno  and other pre-Socratic philosophers…The Guru here and in the nest verse comes up against the same time-honoured problem with refernce to the ultimate unitive status of the Absolute in the Self as  a high value.
 Ancient Greek philosophers, Parmenides, Zeno, Socrates, Plato etc insisted that changeless being or Self was untimate Reality or Truth.

(97)                                         Anu arivin mahimavil angamilla-
thanayum akandavum annu poornamakum;
anubhaviyathae areveela akandamam chit-
ghanam ithu mauna ghanamruthabthiyakkum.

In Wisdom’s glory, identity lost,
The atom merges. The Infinite then be perfect.
Sans experiencing is unitive Intelligence unrealized:
It is Nectar’s ocean, still and deep.

Note: In the glory of wisdom the atom or matter loses separateness and becomes one with it. Then the Absolute is fully triumphant. Non-dual intelligence or Advaitic wisdom is something which has to be sought ny constant thought and effort. It requires exercise of the mind. It is the sweet silent ocean of solid nectar. In other word, it is the source of unalloyed happiness.
 “The glory of knowledge and perfection of the Absolute have a common ground in the experience of the Self…The culmination of wisdom has to take place in the individual, and mere thoughtful analysys or synthesis to which it is prone, will not bring it to the equilibrium or samness or unity which is here to be understood.
 In this verse and the next we touch the finalized position of the Advaita Vedanta teaching like TAT-TVAM-ASI (Thou art that). The Absoluten is finally one. It is congnised through three categories of the understanding which are sat(Existent) chit(the rational or intellectual) and ananda(the value factor or element).
 “A mere emptiness or absence of interest as in something insipid is not the end or aim of  Advaitha Vedata. Mere intellectually biased schools like the Vijnana Vadins and the sunya Vadins, although their philosophies could be otherwise tenable and quit respectable, might err in this direction of lack of value content.
 

(98)                                               Ituvarae nam oru vasthu inggu aringee-
la athisukameenu anisam kathikkayale
mathimuthalayava mariyalum athma-
swatha azhiyathae arivennu chollidenam.

Till now, not a thing have we here known,
Having always clamoured for too much happiness;
Even if mind and other factors vanish,
Declare Self’s essence is Wisdom ever unspent.

 

Note: Till now we have known nothing because of our delusion about happiness. We concern ourselves with ephemeral desires. Even if mind and other mundane phenomena are at an end, Self’s essence continues to be wisdom. It is always full and vibrant.
 Here is declared the union of Self and non-Self aspects of knowledge. To say we have known nothing means that we have not found anything on which we need improve, making all past knowledge antedated. Now we have, in the process of Self-realization, come across the ultimate Truth or wisdom.
 “When we have successfully discarded the peripheral vestures of the Self, in our analysis of the Self, by the well-known process of neti neti (not this, not this), as recommended in the negative way of the Upanishads, discarding one outer vesture or reality in favor of another inner factor more real as we go from the senses to the mind, we finally arrive at the term of our enquiry beyind which thought cannot go and the value to which thought is applied cannot be improved upon.Such a term is described here as Seld-possession or Self-Realization as it is understood in usual philosophical language. The two aspect reffered to in the previous verses meet unitively and Neutrally in this central value factor. It is thus that wisdom becomes finalised in terms of value”.

(99)                                        Arivu aham ennathum random ekamam-
avaranam ozhinjavanu annyanu undu vadam,
arivinu vittu aham anyam akum ennal-
arivinae ingu ariyanum arumilla.

For the one freed of the evil, both Knowledge
And “I” are the same; the other one dissent has;
If “I” could be deemed else than Knowledge,
Then to know Knowledge there’s here none.

Note: For those freed of the veil of ignorance or Maya, the ego or “I” sense, and the Absolute are identical. This verse highlights the essence of the great concept “thou art that” and concludes this exploration of the Self.

 Those, who have realized the Truth, know that awareness and the “I” sense are one and the same. Ignorant ones dissent. If knowledge and “I” are deemed different, then who will know knowledge, i.e who is the njathavu?
 “This penultimate verse sumsup the position of Advaitha Vedata in terms of Self-knowledge.The reasons advanced need no comment. No argument remains after this finally apodiastic statement is made after examining all other pints of view in the previous verses.

(100)

Athum ithum alla asathartham alla aham, sa-
tchithamrutham ennu thelinju dheeranai
sathu asathu ithi prethipathiyattu sathom –
ithi mruthvai mrituivai amrnnidenum.

Nor that nor this, nor inertmanifest an I,
But is pure ambrosial Infinite. Thus illumined and emboldened,
Attachment to being and non-being extinct,
Do merge gentlt, gently in sat OM.

Note : I am not that or this. Nor am I  inert matter. I am the pure ambrosial Infinite. Keep the mind pure and courageously believe. Being and non-being, existence, and non-existence – such relational concepts – give up. The only reality, the Absolute, inheres in Om, the word in the Beginning. Repeat that pranava Manthram and gently gently merge with it.

“Om represents the Absolute as explained in the Mandukya Upanishad. Sat supplied the ontological basis for the Absolute as value.”

The discussion of the self, its attributes, and the means and methods to realize it, thus come to a glorious finale with an invocation to the Absolute and a formal advice to contemplate the self and comprehend its unitive Infinitude, in this hundredth and last verse of this One Hundred Verses of Self-Instruction.

ARIVU-an interpretation Nitya Chaitanya Yati

ARIVU (By SREE NARAYANA GURU)

Epistemology of Gnosis- Commentry

Foreword
Western philosophy has a branch of study known as epistemology which investigates the origin, structure, methods and validity of knowledge. Each school of thought has its own epistemological doctrine. Though the Indian system of philosophy are also very much concerned with the origin , method and validity of knowledge, epistemology has not developed as a branch of philosophy in India. We witness the maturity of Indian philosophy in the Vedanta system. Vedanta is Brahmavidya (Science of the absolute) and Atmavidya (Science of the self) at the same time. The self and the consciousness or knowledge are not different according to Vedanta. We see special emphasis on this aspect in the philosophy of Narayana Guru. Thus Atmavidya (science of the self) naturally turns out to be the science of knowledge. The two functional aspects of knowledge are sense perception and the state of awareness in which knowledge knows itself, where subject and object become interchangeable.

We are aware of the incessant flow of the tales of consciousness and also of the vast variety of change that happens to one and the same consciousness. What is the essential content of this consciousness which is always one and changeless, and appears to be constantly changing? How is this consciousness understood in Vedanta ae awareness of the self? Wht is that is understood as objects of knowledge? How the same knowledge functions as the subject, object and knowledge? These are all epistemological questions proper to Vedanta.

Vedanta gives finalized answers to philosophical questions, and its certainty relies on one’s own self-awareness. Therefore the answer Vedanta gives to epistemological problems also have to be the final word on that. In the west, where epistemology has developed as a branch of philosophy, epistemological problems had not been given a finalised answer. In India, the necessity for presenting the Vedanta philosophy with an epistemological point of view did not arise at all. Time has changed. Narayana Guru felt the need and he fulfilled it in the fifteen stanzas entitled Arivu which is translated and commented on in this booklet. The intuitive clarity this work leads us to, is something unprecedented in the history of thought. This contribution of Narayana Guru to the world of philosophy could also be treated as his contribution to give originality to Vedanta.

This is a work to read all at once. Only intensive and extensive contemplation will disclose the inner clarity the Guru had while he composed it . The present booklet is not a conventional commentary on the work. It is an attempt to make a pilgrimage to the interior of the Guru’s vision, lending a helping hand to the reader at the same time. We request the readers to go through it with such a precaution and anticipation. (Publishers)
 

Verse- 1

What is known here, when carefully considered,
Is not anything other than knowledge.
As knowledge in this (as the knower and the known) is one,
There is not anything anywhere apart from knowledge.

Commentry:

What impresses us in knowledge is the mark of the known.The known is experienced both as objective factors outside one’s body and also as subjective consciousness consisting of feeling, cogitation, volition, etc,, within one’s own body-mind complex. As the outside objective world is mainly comprehended by one’s sense organs, and the external factors are manipulated by organs of action, the knowledge of such objects seems to be more distinct than subjective notions experienced within oneself.

The outside factors are recognized as belonging to a time-space frame. An object experienced as belonging to a particular space, being seen again and again and again in the same space in spite of the passing of time, is assigned by us individual existence and relative permanence. Such objects are also considered as independent factors that can never be affected by somebody’s private opinion or wish. For this reason objects are considered unique. As we are impressed by such uniqueness of individual objects, we forget that things are first of all translated into ideas before their comprehension.

According to Vaiseshika philosophy there are six categories: dravya (substance), guna (quality), samanya (generality), visesha (particularity), sambandha (relationship), and samavaya (inherence). To this the Naiyayikas added the seventh one- abhava (absence). The dravya, or substance of a thing, does not enter into our body-mind aggregate. Rather it is only the qualities of the object such as tall and short, thick or thin, heavy or light, the physical outlines, color, etc., which are presented in the form of ideas. The consciousness that is directed to comprehend the outside object transforms itself into these ideas. Thus the interpretation of an object is happening through an identification of the subjective consciousness with an objective phenomenon. What is presentative is known to us only through an act of representation. This is the case whether a thing is outside the body or inside the body-mind complex.

When the existence or nature of anything is questioned, it evokes memory and a decision-making judgment. The recognition of an object brings a duality within the consciousness, of the knower and the known. In fact, there is only a modulating consciousness which the Guru here calls knowledge (Arivu).

A vivid picture of the activity of mentation or cogitation comes only when the inertia of consciousness is removed through a self- induced activisation of consciousness. This naturally results from the very Dharma or the nature of consciousness. Dharma, according to Jaimani, is of chodanalakshana. Chodana has two meanings. One is, that which is provocative so as to cause us  to question its nature and validity. Another meaning is, that which inspires and evokes energy.

When the mind changes from passivity to activity, it questions anything newly presented to its sphere. There are a number of possible questions such as what, where, when, how, which, why, for whom, by whom, what for, etc. This particular  aspect alone is called manas, and the modulations within the mind-stuff of such questions arising are called mano-vritti, mind modifications. Questions are immediately followed by the recalling of previous memories, and therefore mind modifications (mano-vritti) naturally leads to Chitta-vritti , memory recall. Chitta-vritti leads to the problem of decision-making. Mind cannot leave anything without passing a judgement. This judgmental aspect of mind is called buddhi-vritti. Buddhi-vritti is the modified aspect  of consciousness when a judgment is made. The natural consequence of a judgment is affection (ahamkara-vritti). The body-mind system of an individual is affected by its own judgment.

Thus from the periphery of consciousness to the centre of consciousness, we have nothing but one stretch of knowledge. Therefore in this first verse of Arivu, Narayana Guru denotes the subject matter of the discussion to be knowledge, or gnosis, and he assigns to it the dignity and status of the Absolute, the one without a second.
 

Verse- 2

If there is no knowledge, then the known is not, even if such exists.
If that one knowledge is not existing,
What knowing of which knowledge
Is there that can be known for certain?

Commentary.

What we know at a given moment has its own limits.
With our eyes we can look into the farthest space which we know, and there we see shimmering stars which are fainter than fireflies. We presume that beyond tese almost invisible stars, there are several galaxies each containing several billions or trillions of stars. Our ears cannot reach to such far off distances which are accessible to the eyes. Even the loudest blast is heard only within a small space of a few square miles. The sensation of touch is experienced only when another object is in direct contact with our body. Even when something which is very bitter or sweet is placed in the palm or on the forehead, one does not know its flavor. It is to be tasted with one’s tongue only. To experience odor the gross molecules of the object have to go into the nostrils to stimulate our olfactory buds.

As our sense organs have such limitation, at each given time we do not know even one trillionth of the existing world. Considering this, one can legitimately presume that outside our knowledge there exists a vast world whose manifoldness and magnitude is never  fully comprehended by anyone. But in this second verse Narayana Guru puts a pertinent question to such a persumer: “ If there is no knowledge whatsoever of an unknown entity or world, how can conjectures even be made?” If there is no knowledge, nothing can be affirmed or denied.

When we are asleep, we do not have any knowledge of the bed or mattress on which we sleep. We become oblivious to all details of the room in which we are sleeping. Even a person sleeping on the same bed does not exist to one who is in deep sleep. But when we wake up, we do not have the least doubt that we were sleeping on the same bed on which we have gone to sleep. Further, in deep sleep one has no consciousness of one’s own name or identity. That is also recollected only on waking up.

Such lapses in knowledge do not prevent us from having a satisfactory knowledge about the world, because we have three sources of knowledge: immediate, mediate and intuitional. Immediate knowledge comes from the direct contact of senses with objects of interest. Mediate knowledge comes through the reporting made by others. The vast source of mediate knowledge is the recorded experiences of millions of people in so many languages. What cannot be directly seen can be conjectured through the testimonies of inference, comparison and mathematical pondering. Thus our knowledge is not limited to the capacity of our sense organs. It is being continuously complemented from all sides by the knowledge of all others with whom we are sharing our life.

Bishop Berkeley of England said, “Esse is percipi( to be is to perceive).” Berkley’s idea of perception is not a materialistic concept. To him perception is the recognition of an idea or sensation presented to the mind.There is a story about Berkley’s substantiation of idea: Johnson became furious about Berkley’s theory and kicked at a stone, saying, “ I will kick off  Berkley’s idea like this.” But Johnson’s toe was hurt and it bled. Johnson asked, “Are the stone, this toe and this blood mere idea?” When Berkeley heard this, he smiled and said, “Johnson, the stone, the toe, the blood, and his anger are all ideas.” Berkeley held the view that even when one person is not seeing this world, another is seeing it; and even when nobody is seeing it, God is seeing it.

In the present verse, the Guru is not taking his theory to any inconceivable subtlety. To know, there should be knowledge. Even to know that there is nothing to know, there should be knowledge. If knowledge is denied, then there is nothing to know of knowing or not-knowing.
 

Verse- 3

What is known to be unbounded knowledge,
That also shines as knowledge.
As the dream that arises from knowledge,
Becomes experiential knowledge, suchwise everything else.

Commentary:

First of all let us consider the difference between seeing and looking. When our eyes are open, things which exist in a given area of space become automatically presented to our vision. To most of all those impressions which are mechanically registered upon our eyes, we have only a passive indifference. Attention is an experience which is radically different from indifference. Some of the impressions registered in the eye can be recognized instantaneously as symbols of pleasure or pain, love or hatred, hope or fear. When this symbol becomes pronounced in the mind, gestaltation happens. Gestaltation always evokes interest. As we have already seen interest arouses questions such as, “ what is this?”. From there on we are not only seeing but looking. A few objects of interest loom large in our attention and push the rest to the background. Thus every object of interest has its vague or relatively unimportant environmental background.

If a needle is dropped into a stack of hay, we look into the hay with minute care to reclaim the needle. To a far greater degree than the seeing of objects presented to the eye, the mind holds before itself a very clear image of the lost needle, with special reference to its exact length, shape, glittering quality etc. Thus inside there is a picture, and we are looking for an object which can have an one-to-one correspondence with the image clearly projected in the mind. Although innumerable forms of the hay fall into yhe eye, they will all be rejected as irrelevant at the very moment. The only attention of the eye is to rediscover the lost needle.

Here in the vast matrix of immeasurable or uncountable presentations, we are looking for a measurable definite object. Even though this universe of ours is of infinite dimension, the person who is standing face to face with it is one who bent upon measuring everything that is presented to his or her consciousness. In the Mandukya Karika of Gaudapada, the agent of perception, or the I-consciousness that functions as the knower/doer/enjoyer, is called viswa abimani, the measuring agent of the universe. The ‘present’ suggests the here and now aspect of experience. In the here and now, anything presented to the mind is transformed into a definitive impression by this measuring agent. The Sanskrit  word vartamanam means, ‘the here and now where measuring can take place.’

Even though we are always passing from one definitive experience to another; there is always behind that a back-drop of indefiniteness or unscrutinized images. The finite is in the foreground and the infinite is in the background. Here an intellectual objection may be raised by certain modern astrophysicists, though not all, that space is finite and not infinite. We cannot think of the relative without thinking of the absolute. The finite is always compared with the infinite and vice versa.

From an amorphous infinity of undefined and unformed possibility, definite forms arise, and we are continuously in interaction with such forms. When we focus our attention on a point where two lines intersect, in spite of the importance given to the point, the lines also become relevant. Thus finite knowledge with perceivable characteristics, and imperceptual background consciousness are both presented to us simultaneously. Just as the finite knowledge, the all-filling knowledge is also knowledge.

When a person sleeps in his or her private chamber all alone and with eyes closed, inside the skull there is nothing but the gray matter of the brain. In that brain, dreams are secreted. In those dreams so many images arise such as of towns and hamlets, men and women, and situations that are dreadful and ludicrous. No item in a dream has gross substantiality. All are only images woven out to and by consciousness. That does not prevent the mind from enjoying the forms of the dream and reacting to the situations projected by it. The way in which we react to gross objects presented in wakefulness is the same as how we react to the objects in the dream.

The magical way by which variegated dreams are fabricated out of the single formless knowledge, even so all the experiences in the wakeful and the deep sleep are generated.
 

Verse- 4

If Knowledge  is all-filling
Where will non-knowledge dwell?
Where does that knowledge exist which goes in search of knowledge
And knows knowledge where it is ?

Commentary:

People articulate sounds. These days, as an extension of humans, we hear recorded speech from machines also. On hearing such intentionally made sounds belonging to a large language system, we expect every word to connote a meaning. Similarly, there are written words. If one can intelligently read a deciphered script, that also will connote meaning to the reader. Even sounds which do not produce any verbal connotation can still become interesting if they are musical. If a sound neither connotes a word meaning nor produces a musical affection, then it is dismissed as sheer noise. Any ponderable sound will bring to our mind its corresponding mental image packed in a concept.
 From the beginning of the printed carbon forms of scripts on a sheet of paper na book, there has loomed to our mind a word of meaning  which goes on swelling into variegated imageries. Thus, from the pages of books there arises the world of geniuses, like The Vyasa, the comedies and tragedies of Shakespeare and the poetical plays of Kalidasa. Each work presents before our mind’s eye several rich and varied themes of human life and gives us several shades of  romantic, historical, lyrical and philosophical visions of beauty and truth. After coming into intimacy with the characters of these books, we shed our tears for a Sita, marvel at an Arjuna, or sympathise with a Hamlet or Dushyanta.

It is a wonder how such thematic visions and philosophical exhultations can crouch behind the structured grouping of the alphabet of any language. This is because the standardized conceptual image of a word is kept as precise as possible so that all those allied to a particular language cannot escape the dictates of formally recognized words and their semantic implications.

Certain words are dictators. Such words rule the movement of the intellect and will not compromise to be rendered into a meaning other than that which is publicly recognized by all who subscribe to that language system. Such words rule the mind of people, transform and revolutionise  the minds of their votaries, and compel people to stand by their pledges  even though such a confirmation can spell suicidal tragedies.

Such a word is advaita, the non-dual, the one without a second. The non-dual philosophy cryptically laid within this compound word rejects any claim of postulating the existential verity of a second.

Contradiction is considered to be illogical, and it is the nightmare of all philosophers. The uncompromising mind that insists that light and darkness cannot coexist, pitilessly decrees that knowledge and non-knowledge cannot exist together. In verse-1 we have already seen that there is only one knowledge and there is nothing else to fall ouside its scope. In the second verse it is insisted that knowledge is the only coping stone of existence. In the third verse we saw that all relativistic and finite knowledge is within the ambit of the one and infinite knowledge. After taking such a stand, now if we conclude that there can be instances of non-knowledge in all the given instances of consciousness, it becomes pertinent to ask, “where can such a consciousness exist? If everything is knowledge and knowledge is all-filling, where should we look for non-knowledge? What could be its locality?” To say that non-knowledge exists in knowledge is illogical. That is opposed to our primary stand.

Narayana Guru is a philosopher who stands with both his feet firmly fixed on the terra firma.  Although Narayana Guru, like other vedantins, recognized the validity of verbal testimony, he gives his teaching only when it has total relevancy to sound reasoning and possible human experience.

Our knowledge is not static. It is experienced as a flow. The Ganges originates from the Himalayas, and finally falls into the bay of Bengal more than 1,000 miles from the Himalayan peaks. A person who enters the Ganges at Hardwar, Benares or Patna can claim to be standing in the entire Ganges. However, that person sees only a very malls segment of it, and experiences only a  few gallons of water washing his or her body. Similarly,  a person experiences the stream of consciousness as only the awareness of the here and now of a given situation, and there are vast areas of that stream lying in oblivion. What is in oblivion is non-knowledge, so nobody can say that there is no non-knowledge after proclaiming that there is nothing other than knowledge.

We are always asking questions like, “what is, there is, how, etc.” Such questions indicate that we are looking for knowledge that was hitherto not known to us. When a particular knowledge is not available at a certain place, people of that locality go to another place in search of it. When knowledge is not available from one person, we seek another person who can reliably impart it. Disciples seek Gurus because they are convinced that they do not have certain knowledge, and they want to find out from their gurus the how and why of their search.

The present knowledge is the same knowledge that is dissatisfied with itself and undertakes a search and makes scrutinizes  through observations and experiments. What is that knowledge in us which recognizes that it is not perfect and to be perfected? How does this knowledge know where and how to seek? When knowledge arrives at a place and becomes complemented with further knowledge, how does it know that it was the same knowledge that was sought after? If wrong knowledge came as a result of fallacious search, how does this knowledge realize that to be wrong, and correct its mistake? If knowledge is not mere awareness but also implies the dynamism of search and the principle of illumination, with these and all such qualities, where does that knowledge reside? This verse is mainly intended to help a contemplative to guide one’s thought so that one may put the right questions to oneself and arrive at pertinent and useful knowledge which can help one attain realization.

Verse- 5

If knowledge does not extinguish in knowledge,
Where does it descend (disappear) to?
Knowledge is not known; when known
Both (knowledge and knowing of knowledge )
                                           become one.

Commendary:            

When we listen to another person talking, our attention is fixed on each word that succeeds the previous one. The relationship of that word to the previous and successive ones registers its meaning, and a whole sentence is thus treated as a unit. Even in the shortest sentence that we listen to, the conceptual image of the word that is first listened to is retained in the focusing attention so that it can as well be complimented with the successive  words so that a unit of meaning can be structured. Mind cannot hold too many things in its focal center in the process of perceptual knowledge, and therefore what is already understood and appreciated is allowed to pass, and its place is assigned to what is yet to be perceived, cogitated or known. Apparently when such a thing happens, there is no trace in the present of what has come and vanished into the past. It is as if the light that has illuminated the present extinguishes, and in its place a new light comes. If that is how it is , then we may ask, “Into what depth does what is already experienced enter to vanish from surface consciousness?”

A total extinguishing of any experience cannot be considered valid because even after the present has vanished into past, the memory of that experience can be recalled. A re-vision proves the temporary concealment of an experience which was hiding out from the present. In the previous verse we have seen the movement of knowledge from the present to the future in search of a hitherto unrevealed knowledge. In the present verse we are considering the movement of a reverse order, i.e., from the present to the past. Just as it is a  riddle that out of non-knowledge knowledge arises, it is also a riddle that knowledge becomes reconverted to non-knowledge.

As there in an alternation in the emphasis “I am knowing” and “This is known”, the fact that one is knowing knowledge is not automatically recognized. In perpetual knowledge, knowledge is a process of identification in which the light of consciousness is becoming like unto the feature of the illumination that is happening in the act of knowing.

Only on reconsideration of what has come to pass does one say, “This is what is known”. With a similar reconsideration one also says, “I am now knowing the knowledge that is presented in this manner.” Even when such logical ascertainments are possible, before that becomes known to one’s own mind the modulating consciousness of knowing process and the knowledge ushered in from non-knowledge merge into one. This merger of active consciousness with that which is prospectively and retrospectively envisioned can be sited always only as an already integrated factor.

Verse- 6

Prior to knowledge “what?” if we should ask,
Other than knowledge nothing here is found.
The unknowing, what boundary could it have?
And as for knowledge, nothing here is seen.

Commentary:

Our mind is very much interested in physical events. We see carpenters giving shape to piece of furniture from planks. We know the planks are cut from trees. We can even imagine how a tree comes from a seedling or a cutting. Similarly we see how various things before us have come into being. It has become habitual for our mind to ask for the beginning of things. Considering this habit of tracing the beginning of things Guru asks, ‘What is the beginning of knowledge”, or “What is there before the emergence of knowledge”, or, “What is there before the emergence of knowledge?”.

This question, however, cannot be answered adequately. It is like asking, “What was there before time”, or , “What is beyond space?”.  All sequential things are happening within time. Within a system where change is the order, the implication of time is happening all through and to every event. A specific event has a before and after, but time, as such, cannot be subjected to beginning and end. Within space there are relative dimensions of space in accordance with the relative and conditional existence of objects. But space, as such, cannot have frontiers.

Similarly, the function of a conscient being is an event happening within the matrix of knowledge. There can be formations of thoughts and disappearance of ideas. Such beginnings and ends are not applicable to knowledge as such. Even though there is a justification for treating a person’s  knowledge as the private experience of a single individual, no conscient, being is an island of knowledge segregated from the socialized and collectivized knowledge that is being perpetuated through millennia by the construction of languages and the sharing between persons and groups through the several media of communication. Thus even the first inquisitive look of the newborn is a stir on the surface of the boundless ocean of consciousness. So Guru says,”Prior to knowledge, what is?. If such question is put, it is to be answered that” other than knowledge, nothing else is found here.”

Of course, there is a prior and after of the specific registration of a particular sensation or the arousal of an idea. And there is a legitimacy for the unknowing to exist prior to the conscious recognition of what is specifically presented as this or that knowledge. But that unknowing is not a quantifiable factor. It is also to be located within the overall knowledge within which both the individual and the history of  one’s collective existence reside. This knowledge is here termed arivu. Guru is neither using the timr honored philosophical term of Vedanta called Brahman, nor the term of God. Rather arivu which is translated here as “knowledge”, is to be understood  as the all-encompassing Absolute which is at once the ground and stuff of all. The Guru, however, does not want one to confuse it with the cosmic phenomena of the visible universe, so he places it beyond the objective and the subjective and clearly says, “That arivu is not anything to be seen here.”
 

Verse- 7

Of knowledge we are aware; of its absence we have no awareness here.
In this, which is ascertained from which ?
Even when there is knowledge of non-knowledge,
That does not make non-knowledge specific.

Commentary:

Specific knowledge is focusing attention on some distinct aspects. That can also, in principle, mean the dismissal of everything irrelevant to that context. When a table is recognized as “table”, it implies that the table is not “chair”. In that list of irrelevancies, a million items can be included as “This is not…Thi is not….”.

In substance we do know that this is a table and not a chair, but in the actual course of knowing, we do not experience the mind categorizing, classifying and promoting one in contradistinction to another. Such a process is postulated only when we make a psychological analysis. Even then one cannot say for sure whether it is the assertion that is leading to the illumination of the irrelevant or the illumination of the irrelevant leading to the assertion of the relevant.

In vedantic parlance such a discernment is called bhava nischaya, the ascertainment of existence; with a dialectical ascertainment of non-existence, abhava nischaya. In this matter Indian philosophers usually take the sides  favoring  the positive aspect of mind or its negative functioning. In this verse Narayana Guru leaves it open.

In the course of day’s cogitation there are a number of instances when we are confronted with situations in which we cannot make out for certain what the exact nature of the situation is. We know several cases of non-knowledge requiring our attention to make further probes and know more details of a given thing or situation. Thus even when we are placed within all-embracing knowledge, the mere recognition that there are things to be known does not create within such knowledge specific knowledge. That is a matter of common experience.
 

Verse- 8

Even from the time of the occurance of knowledge, “This” also exists.
As knowledge is the real, when can “This” disjunctly exist?
An item of knowledge has no separate existence apart from knowledge which is one,
So what is there other than knowledge?

Commentary:

When a person says “I exist”, “This cat exists”, “I know, I am knowing the existence of this cat”, such explicit statements are to be counted as logical/ psychological reductions of  actual acts of knowing. Perception is not happening without the full participation of the percept and the percipient. The logical distinction made between the knower and the known is not in the first order of experience but comes as a secondary derivative in which  analysis is ushered in for making the components of knowledge logically more explicit. In fact such a reduction falsifies to one’s own mind the true nature of gestaltation.

In the statements given above, two aspects of knowledge are considered- the subjective and the objective. In the statement, “I exist”, the central focus of consciousness, self- styled as “I”, is further objectified and treated as a specific knowledge of the individuated functional consciousness. Even when such reductions are made, there cannot be any separation between the seemingly subjective consciousness “I am” and the consciousness that is animating the individual. Only when an objectvization is made circumscribing its specificity, does a false notion of the true arise.

In the engineering of perception there also arises a similar confusion in the postulation of the independence of the object “cat” from the perceiving mind of “I”. This is a confusion that has caused serious problems in philosophy even from the Platonic period.

The photographic device and the analogy  drawn in modern physiology of the functioning of the eye and the brain as similar to the functioning of the camera and the camera man has strengthened the postulation that the percipient is not seeing the preventative object but only its representation. Even the famous theory of Einstein, that the universe is a watch in a concealed case which can never be opened, and that we are only standing outside and making shrewd guesses, has in it this inherent flow, and only the untutored person in the street, in his or her common sense, is not creating any unwarranted separation between the reality of the object and the perceptual experience of it. The common person sees a thing where it is and does not make logical surmises as to its possible existence prior to its being known and posterior existence when attention is withdrawn.

To exist is a simple fact, and it is not a philosophical entity. Knowledge and the object of  knowledge occur simultaneously, and it is only later “I am”  and “This is” are drawn out of that experience as philosophical commentaries of experience. Here the distinction between pure idealism and pure realism is annulled. Such being the case, it does not matter in the least whether the experiential fact is spiritualistic or materialistic in its content. The here and now in such an understanding is as much ideally valid as it is pragmatically valid, too. The physiology of perception, etc; is a secondary theorization, and that should be allowed to take the place of primary experience which admits of no separation between the knower, the known and the knowledge, or existence and knowledge of existence .
 

Verse- 9

There is a habitation for knowledge.
The known has no habitation distinct from that.
If so, when cogitated on
How can the knowledge enter the known?

Commentary:

In an individual’s experiencing of consciousness, two main characteristics can be noticed. It is expansive, like unlimited space, with a central region that is in focus. Secondly, the central focus of consciousness is sequentially moving from one theme of experience to another.  In that sense, time and space can be considered the warp and woof of consciousness.

Everything known has its given time and space in the stream of consciousness. To exist means to have an allotted habitation in space. For this reason, in the Indian philosophical schools, space is called akasa . Akasa is defined as “that which donates habitation.” As time and space put together with everything happening within the time-space-Contnuum has to be necessarily in knowledge, it goes without saying that knowledge has its habitation.

From the previous verse it is not clear how an individual’s consciousness is afflicted with an erroneous sense of tri-basic division such as the knower, the act of knowing, and the known. Even languages of all people admit binary terms like subject and object. Most people tend to think that only subjective consciousness is through knowledge. Because of such a notion knowledge is exclusively treated as spiritual and the object of knowledge is assigned to another realm conceived as materialistic. Such a view was responsible for the  Cartesian division of mind and matter. That inevitably brings the need for separate habitations for knowledge and the object of knowledge. Here Guru wants to say this is not true. He categorically declares that the known does not have a habitation separate from knowledge.

If the known has no separate existence, it must occur within the habitation of knowledge. That can raise two questions, “How does the known enter into the realm of knowledge and transform itself into a communicating medium of a specific knowledge?” The last line of the ninth verse, which can be rendered with two meanings, is a direct restatement of the question just alluded to. “Considering that knowledge alone has the sole habitation, from where and how do items of knowledge present themselves sequentially as if each item has a separate objective validity?”.

The second problem that arises is, “How can we place quantifiable  items of knowledge within an infinitude which can neither decrease nor increase in its magnitude?”. The alternative meaning that can be assigned to the last line would mean, “if that knowledge does not admit of another habitation for the known, how can it be reconciled with the mounting plurality of objects, when objects are quantifiable and can be on the increase when counted?”.

Verse-10

On that occasion when knowledge is not functioning
The known too is totally consumed;
In functional knowledge what is there not known?
And as for knowledge, how could it arise at all?

Commentary:

Although mind in general is the same for all people, the object of interest that catches one’s attention can be considerably different from that which attracts another. Whereas the physicist preoccupies himself with the study of atomic particles and the forms of energy which they emit, a musician may give all his or her time to understand musical notes and forms of music.

Actually the object of knowledge, in itself, may not prevent anyone from knowing it. Even when the possibility of knowing such knowledge abounds all around, if the agent of knowledge has no obligation to give attention to the several avenues of knowledge surrounding it, they will simply pass unnoticed. Even in a physical sense when countless number to stimuli are already confronting the senses, it is surprising that a number of them are not even given the slightest attention. It remains a riddle what promotes certain stimulii to the status of being known while certain others are not thus promoted.

Knowledge alone is capable of revealing itself. Only the self is luminous, whereas the non-self remains hidden before becoming revealed. How can any knowledge come if non-specific knowledge has not within it a device by which pure awareness can change into an object of Knowledge? In the previous verse There was reference to the dialectics of the one and the many, in which also the conversion of the one into many is looked upon with awe. The same mystery is kept alive in this verse also.
 

Verse-11

What remains as knowledge of knowledge
And makes known here, we are that.
Considering thus, to which category does knowledge belong?
Ans how does it function and what is that is called the known?

Commentary:

Humans have five kinds of sense objects. If we pour aromatic coffee out of a jug into a cup, we can hear the sound and see how the space in the cup is filled with the thick iodine coloured coffee.  We can feel even from outside the cup that it is hot. Black coffee with lathering foam on the surface can be a pleasing sight. Even from a distance the smell comes. It is tasty when sipped. Even sense organ is bringing a different report about the stuff presented to our perception, such as sound, touch, form, taste, and smell. All these, however different, are complementary and our mind can appreciate the sipping of the delicious coffee.

Considering the information coming through the five channels of sense organs, we can say that each item of knowledge is different from the other. In the final synthesis of all the five types of  sense data, mind treats it as of a single stuff. The distinctive features of the different senses do not offer any problem to the mind at all.

In one of the old Upanishads this question is raised. “Who  sits behind the ear and hears, behind the eye and sees, etc.?” In the final analysis it is shown that the self (atman) identified with the universal self (Brahman) is the one  knowledge which is behind every item of knowledge.

The same subject is discussed  in Sankara’s Drk drsya viveka (The discerning of the knower from the known). In that study, Sankara first calls our attention to external objects and calls them the known(drsya). What relates to the known, as knower, is the eye,(drk). If the eye is defective, such as with color blindness etc., one gets a wrong impression  of the object. From it is conjectured that the image produced within the eye is only the objectivised  knowledge, and the knower is the mind. Again, if the mind is not in a state of good health, what is seen can be hallucinative. From this it is further conjectured that even mind is only what is seen, and the real seer is the knowledge behind the mind, the knowledge that animates the mind. The knowledge that animates  the mind is only a modulated knowledge. What is primary to modulated knowledge is pure knowledge. Pure knowledge the Self. So wharever is seen here is only a specific modification of the Self.

In another of Narayana Guru’s works Guru defines the Self as, “the knowledge which sits in the dark and knows”. In this verse Guru says that, primary knowledge, which is the only knowledge behind all forms of knowledge and which reveals to us all the several items of perception and conception is in reality we ourselves.

When knowledge is to be considered, one should ask, “ which category of knowledge  is under consideration and how does it function”? He asks us to focus our attention on the arising of the various items of the known that are presented in our knowledge.
 

Verse-12

What is Knowledge- you are that.
It is by investing your own knowledge that it becomes the known.
What is known here is of two classes :
One is conscious of knowing and the other is not conscious of the same.

Commentary:

By eliminating the duality between the known and the knowledge , self-identity has now become expansive to include the knower as the core and the known as its continuing radiance or illumination. This can be better understood in the light of the first verse of the
Atmopadesa sataka according to which the central core (karu) is shining both as the inner knowledge and the outer world.

In this verse the distinction between the inner world and the outer world is further minimized or even dismissed. In a colorful fountain with picturesque designs, the water that surges up from its core forms the spectacle. The water that is pumped into the device and the spectacle are not two. Just as Spinoza speaks of nature-naturing and nature- natured, it is admissible here to think of knowledge in the process of knowing and the knowledge that is becoming manifestedly known.

Despite the central unity of the knowledge and the known, there continues a distinction between self-conscious knowledge and the unconscious. An analogy that can illustrate the distinction can be of the sun that does not know the grand illumination it makes and the eye that is in full conscious appreciation of the panorama illuminated by the sun. In the second verse of the Atmopadesa sataka,  Narayana Guru speaks of everything perceptual and conceptual as a transformed image of the one light that comes from the sun shining in the void of firmament of consciousness.
 

Verse-13

Thuswise knowledge also proceeds
To fill the knower .
Thereafter one spark of this knowledge
Falls into one category of the known and splits into five.

Commentary:

The one sun shines in the sky. When it is mirrored in a lake, however big, there appears only one reflection. But if a wave arises in the lake and creates some froth with a milliom bubbles in it, each bubble will show a separate reflection of the sun. It may not last long, but it is a good enough example to illustrate how the one can be seen as many without causing any change whatsoever to the original. Like the one sun which can reflect in many lake, the universal Self animates all individuated Selves. The original unmodulated Self, according to Vedanta, is pure consciousness (Pratyang Chaitanya). When it reflects in the individuated psycho-physical organism, its purity is afflicted with the triads of nature. From it issues forth the spark of interest, the compulsion to enjoy (Which in consequence can also lead to suffering). The reflected light in the individual is the individual consciousness (jiva chaitanya), also called jiva-jnana. When it is directed towards the one category of the object of interest that is knowable (as shown in the previous verse) the jivajnana splits into five types of sensory knowledge indriya chaitanya or indriya jnana. Thus the one without a second changes into the knowing mind fed by its five channels of perception.

Verse-14

Such a cognizer who knows that knowledge is,
Knows also that he is the knower of it,
Thus (based on subjective consciousness) knowledge is eight fold:
Knowledge is one, knower is another and six being objective knowledges.

Commentary:

In the awareness, ‘I am knowledge’ as well as in the knowledge ‘ I am knowing this object’ there is the conscious experience that I am the knower of it. In the act of knowledge there is an oscillation of the cognizing intelligence between the perceived object and one’s sense of agency in the act of knowing. This is called bhana vritti. In the “Bhana Darsana” of Narayana Guru, he compares this oscillation to the fluttering of the wings of the bee. The wings are moving so rapidly that one cannot say when they are up and when they are down. For one moment the knowledge is with the object of knowledge and in the next it is with the knower. Thus there is a constant alternation of consciousness between “This is” and “I am”. When it says, “This is”, two faculties of the mind, i.e., the interrogating consciousness and the recalling of the memory, fuse into one. This can be called respectively manas and chitta. From “This is”, knowledge shifts to “I am”. That is the ego-sense, ahamkara. For convenience the whole process can thus be taken as an alternation between the subject and the object and what is called manas (mind), buddi (intelligence) chitta (remembering and associational faculty) and ahamkara (ego) are all different stages in the oscillation of consciousness in between the subject and the object. In other words what is called internal faculties (antahkaranas) are only various aspects of the cognizing process of consciousness. Cognizing process and the internal organs are not different entities. Knowledge could be analysed from the stand-point of subjective consciousness and also from that of objective consciousness. From the side of subjective consciousness, knowledge could be understood as having eight elements or aspects, vize, knowledge, the knower, and the six kinds of knowledge based on the objects, i.e., five sense knowledges which rely on the object that is knowable and the one object that is unknowable, as mentioned in the two previous verses.

Verse-15

Based on the known
This knowledge is seen as seven and one, making eight.
Knowledge, thus will become known separately.
And this is only true when unfurled.

Commentary:

Realization is not a theoretical possibility of an after-death “immortality”. For men and women the actualisation and realization of the self should have a one-to-one correspondence in the here and now of life.

A person is at once one with the Supreme Consciousness  and at the same time a finite spark which represents within itself a microcosmic version of the flux of becoming and the unchanging reality of being. In its finitude it functions relativistically and is conditioned with the special characteristics of the five attributes that correspond to the elemental stuff of this universe-space, air, fire, water and earth. These are experienced as sound, touch, form, taste and smell respectively. These five are actualized when the mind uses them to fabricate the tapestry of perceptual experience.

Thus the mind and the senses are on the plus side of the actuality. These are not mere phantoms occurring in the void. They manifest as superimpositions on the ground of universal existence. Universal existence is realized in the here and now as the conscious recognition of an imperishable value.

Consciousness, to begin with, is of the ego which is the recipient of all the information. This individuated consciousness knows the five kinds of objects and is also aware of the unknowable ‘object’. These are all objectively known and there remains the knower or witness of all these which makes the number of manifested principles eight. As the individual has no existence apart from the Absolute, these eight conditioned aspects can be existing only as dependent factors of unconditioned knowledge.

Passing from the conditioned to the unconditioned is realization. And reverting from the unconditioned to the conditioned is the actualization of the one in the many. This has a close resemblance to the zen story of Hoti, the happy man in China. The Zen master Hoti used to beg for small coins. Whenever someone gave him a coin, he brought toffee with it and stacked the toffee in a gunny sack. After filling the bag, he shared the toffee with street children. One day some one asked him, “what is nirvana (liberation) ?” At once he threw down his toffee bag. Then the same person asked, “Master, how do we practise it?” to which he picked up his toffee bag and placed it over his shoulder again. Thus, realization and actualization go hand in hand .
 

Comments by Natraja Guru

ADHYAROPA-DARSANAM-1

Darsana Mala :- ADHYAROPA-DARSANAM-1 (Sanskrit) (VISION BY SUPPOSITION)

1. "asidagre sadevedam bhuvanam svapnavat punah
sasarja sarvam sankalpamatrena paramesvarah"

In the beginning, there was
Non-existence indeed!
Dream-wise then again, by mere willing
Everything existent created He, the Lord supreme.

AGRE, in the beginning (before creation),
IDAM BHUVANAM, this world,
ASAD EVA, even as nothingness ( as non-existence, indeed),
ASID, existed,
PUNAH, thereafter (at the time of creation),
PARAMESVARAH, the supreme lord,
SARVAM, everything,
SANKALPAMATRENA, by mere willing,
SVAPNAVAT, like a dream,
SA-SARJA, (he) created.

2. "vasanamayamevada vasididamatha prabhuh
asrjanmayaya svasya mayavivakhilam jagat"

In the beginning, in the form of incipient memory factors,
(All) this remained. Then the Lord,
By his own power of false presentiment, like a magician,
Created all this world (of change).

ADAU, in the beginning (at inception, before creation),
IDAM, this (visible world),
VASANAMAYAM EVA, in the form of incipient memory factors,
(i.e. as Samskaras, deep aperceptive masses in consciousness),
ASID, (remained) existent,
ATHA, thereafter (at the time of creation),
PRABHUH, the lord,
SVASYA, (by) his own
MAYAYA, by (his power of) false presentiment,
MAYAVIVA, like a magician,
AKHILAM JAGAT, the whole world,
ASRIJAT, created.

3. "pragutpatteridam svasmin vilinamatha vai svatah
bijadankuravat svaysa saktireva'srjatsvayam"

This (world) before creation was
Latent within Himself.
Thereafter, like a sprout from seed,
From Himself, by His power, by itself it was created.

IDAM, this (world),
PRAKUTPATTEH, before creation,
SVASMIN, in Himself (in the self, in the lord),
VILINAM, was latent,
ATHA VAI, thereafter,
BIJAD ANKURAVAT, like sprout from seed,
SVATAH, from himself (from the lord),
SVASYA SAKTIH, his power,
SVATAH EVA, by itself,
ASRJAT, created

4. "saktistu dvividha jneya taijasi tamasiti ca
sahavaso'nayornasti tejastimirayoriva "

The power, however, as of two kinds
Is to be known, as the bright and the dark;
There is no co-existence between these two,
As with light and darkness.

SAKTIS TU, this power, however,
TAIJASI TAMAS ITI CA, and thus made of light and darkness,
DVIVIDHA, two kinds,
JNEYA, is to be known,
ANAYOH, as between these,
TEJASTI MIRAYOR IVA, so with light and darkness,
SAHAVASAH STI, there is no co-existence.

5. manomatramidam citramivagre sarvamidrsam
prapayamasa vaicitryam bhagavan citrakaravat

In the beginning, this world,
Which was in the form of mind stuff, like a picture
Achieved with all this picturesque variety,
Like an artist, the Lord.

AGRE, in the beginning (before creation),
MANO MATRAM, in the form of mind-stuff
(as made of mere mind-stuff),
IDAM, this (world),
CITRAM IVA, like a picture,
SARVAM IDRISAM,all this as such here,
VAICITRIYAM,(with its picturesque variety),
PRAPAYAMASA, achieved,
CITRAKARAVAT, like an artist,
BHAGAVAN, the lord.

6. asit prakrtirevedam yatha'dau yogavaibhavah
vyatanodatha yogivasiddhijalam jagatpatih
Potentially, what even as Nature remained
Like the psychic powers of Yoga-
Like a Yogi did He, the Lord of the world, work out
His varied psychic powers thereafter.
ADAU, in the beginning,
YATHA YOGAVAI BHAVAHA, as (in the case of) psychic powers,
IDAM, this (world),
PRAKRTIR EVA, as nature(itself),
ASIT, remained,
ATHA, thereafter,
YOGI SIDDHI JALAMIVA, as a yogi with his varied psychic powers,
JAGAT PATIH,the lord of the world,
IDAM, this (world),
VYATANOD, worked out.

7. yada'tmavidyasamkocastada'vidya bhayankaram
namarupatmana'tyartham vibhatiha pisacavat

When Self-knowledge shrinks,
Then prevails nescience fearful;
Ghost-like, taking name and form,
In most terrible fashion looms here.

YADA, when,
ATMA VIDYA SAMKOCAH (BHAVATI), knowledge about the self shrinks,
TADA, then,
AVIDYA, nescience,
NAMA RUPA ATMANA, taking name and form,
PISACAVAT, ghost-like,
ATYARTHAM BHAYANKARAM, in most terrible fashion,
IHA, here,
VIBHATI, looms

8. bhayankaramidam sunyam vetalanagaram yatha
tathaiva visvamakhilam vyakarodadbhutam vibhuh

Terrible and empty of content
Like a city infernal,
Even as such a marvel
Did the Lord make the whole universe.

IDAM, this (visible world),
VETALA NAGARAM YATHA, like an infernal city,
BHAYANKAR IDAM SUNYAM (CA BHAVATI), terrible and empty of content both (remain),
VIBHUH, the lord,
AKHILAMVISVAM, the whole universe,
TATHA IVA, even as such,
ADBHUTAM, a marvel,
VYAKAROD, made

9. arkadyathakramam visvam tatha naivedamatmanah
supteriva pradurasidyugapatsvasya viksaya

If from a sun in graded succession
This world came, such was not the case at all.
Presented as if out of slumber,
At one stroke, all came to be.

IDAM VISVAM, this world,
ARKAD, from the sun,
YATHA KRAMAM, as in a gradual manner,
PRADURASID (ITI CET), it is unmanifested (if it should be said),
TATHA NA IVA,thus not at all,
IDAM, this (world),
ATMANAH, from the self,
SVASYA, (by) its own,
VIKSHAYA, regard (i.e. will),
SUPTEH IVA, as if from sleep,
YUGAPAD, at one stroke,
PRADURASID, all came to be

10. dhanadiva vato yasmat pradurasididam jagat
sa brahma sa sivo visnuh sa parah sarva eva sah

He from whom, like a fig tree as from seed
Came out this world manifested -
He is Brahma, He is Siva and Vishnu,
He is the Ultimate, everything is He indeed.

DHANAT, from a seed,
VATAH IVA, like a fig tree,
YASMAT, from whom,
IDAM JAGAT, this world,
PRADURASID, manifested,
SAH BRAHMA, he is brahma,
SAH VISNU, he is visnu,
SAH SIVA, he is siva,
SAH PARAH, he is the ultimate,
SAH EVA SARVAH, everything is he indeed

APAVADA-DARSANAM-2 (Sanskrit)

Re: Darsana Mala :- APAVADA-DARSANAM-2 (Sanskrit)

1. caitanyadagatam sthulasuksmatmakamidam jagat asti
cedsadghanam sarvam nasti cedasti cidghanam
This world, which is both subtle and gross,
And which has come to be from living consciousness,
If existent, then everything is existent;
If non-existent, then it exists as consciousness.
CAITANYAT, from living consciousness (i.e.the lord),
AGATAM, what has come to be,
STHULA SUKSHMATMAKAMIDAM, which is both subtle and gross,
IDAM JAGAT, this world,
ASTI CET, if existent,
SARVAM SADGHANAM ASTI,everything is existent,
NASTI CET, if non- existent,
CIDGHANAM ASTI, it exists as consciousness

2. anyanna karanatkaryam asadedadato'khilam
asatah kathamutpattiranutpannasya ko layah
Other than the cause, the effect cannot be,
Therefore, all this is non-existent.
Of what is non-existent, how can there be an origin?
And of something unoriginated,how (can there be) re-absorption?
KARANAT, from the cause,
ANYAT, other,
KARYAM NA, there is no effect,
ATAH, before,
ETAT AKHILAM, all this(universe),
ASAT (BHAVATI), becomes non-existent,
ASATAH, of what is non-existent,
UTPATTIH KATHAM, how can there be origin,
ANUTPANNASYA, of something unoriginated,
LAYAH, reabsorbtion,
KAH, how can there be.

3. yasyotpattirlayo nasti tat param brahma ne'tarat
utpattisca layo'stiti brahmatyatmani mayaya
To that which origin and dissolution is not,
That is none other than the ultimate Absolute.
(That there) is origin and re-absorption,
By Maya's confusion in the Self (is supposed).
YASYA, to that which,
UTPATTIH LAYA CA, origin and reabsorption,
NASTI, is not,
TAT, that,
PARAM BRAHMA, (than) the ultimate Absolute,
ITARAT NA, is none other,
UTPATTIH LAYA CA, origin and reabsorption,
ATMANI, in the self,
ASTI ITI, as present,
MAYAYA, by maya,
BHRAMATI, by confusion (one thinks)

4. karanavyatiriktatvat karyasya kathamastita
bhavatyataha karanasya kathamasti ca nastita
Because of non-difference from cause,
The effect, how could it have being?
How could there be, for the same reason,
For the cause also, any non-being?
KARANA VYATIRIKA TVAT, because of non-difference (of effect) from cause,
KARYASYA, for the effect,
KATHAM, how could there be,
ASTITA, (state of) being,
BHAVATI, come to be,
ATAH, for the same reason,
KARANASYA, for the cause,
NASTITA CA, non-being also,
KATHAMASTI, how could there be?

5. karyatvadasato'syasti karanam nahyato jagat
brahmaiva tarhi sadasaditi muhyati mandadhih
Being an effect, and thus non-existent,
An existent cause there is; the world is thus not indeed.
On the other hand, it is the Absolute alone that is existent,
That dull minds mistake as non-existing.
KARYATVAT, because of being an effect,
ASATAH, what is non-existent,
ASYA, for this (visible world),
KARANAM, an (existent) cause,
ASTI, there is,
ATAH, therefore (because there is a cause),
JAGAT, the world (which is an effect),
NA HI, is not (real) indeed,
TARHI, on the contrary,
SAT, existent (as a cause),
BRAHMA EVA, the absolute it is indeed,
MANADHIH, dull minds,
ASAD ITI, as unreal,
MUHYATI, mistake.

6. ekasyaivasti satta cedanyasya'sau kva vidyate
satyastyamatmasrayo yadyapyasati syadasambhavaha
If one alone has reality,
Another in it how could there be?
If existence is posited in existence, tautology,
And if non-existence is so asserted, contradiction (comes).
EKASYA EVA, for one only (i.e. for the absolute alone which is the cause)
SATTA, existence,
ASTI, there is,
ANYASYA, for another (i.e. for the world which is an effect,
ASAU, in this existence,
KYA VIDYATE, where could it be,
SATI, within what exists,
SATTA, existence,
ASTI CET, if we say there is (existence is),
ATMASRAYAH, there is petitio principi, (i.e. tautology),
ASATI, within non-existence,
(SATTA ASTI, existence is),
YADI, if we should say,
ASAMBHAVAH, impossibility (i.e. contradiction),
API, also,
SYAD,would come to be

7. vibhajya'vayavam sarvamekaikam tatra drsyate
cinmatramakhilam nanyaditi mayaviduragam
Dividing all parts one by one,
Everything then is seen there
As mind stuff alone, and as no other,
As thus banishing Maya (relativity) far away.
AVAYAVAM, parts, limbs,
EKAIKAM, onebyone,
SARVAM, all,
VIBHAJYA, Having divided,
TATRA, then,
AKHILAM, everything,(i.e. the whole world),
MAYAVIDURAGAM, banishing maya far away (i.e. without any taint of maya),
CINMATRA, mind stuff alone (of the stuff of absolute consciousness),
ANYAT NA, no other thing,
ITI, thus,
DRSYATE, is seen.

8. cideva nanyadhabati citah paramato nahi
yacca nabhati tadasadyadasattanna bhati ca
Thus, it is pure mind-stuff alone that shines,
There is nothing, therefore, beyond pure mind-stuff at all.
What does not shine is not real either,
And what is not real does not shine indeed.
CIT EVA, it is even pure mind-stuff,
ABHATI, shines,
ANYAD NA, not anything else,
ATAH, therefore
CITAH PARAM, beyond pure mind-stuff(i.e. other than knowledge),
NAHI, nothing indeed,
YAT CA, that which also,
NA ABHATI, does not shine,
TAT, that,
ASAT is non-real,
YAT, that which,
ASAT, is non-real,
TAT, that,
NA BHATI CA, also does not shine indeed.

9. ananda evasti bhati nanyah kascidato'khilam
anandaghanamanyanna vina'nandena vidyate
High Value (bliss) alone exists and shines,
Therefore nothing else at all,
Thus, everything is of the stuff of the High Value,
And besides this High Value, nothing else exists.
ANANDA EVA ASTI, high value (bliss) alone exists,
(ANANDA EVA) BHATI, (it is high value alone that) shines,
ANYAH KASCID NA, not anything else,
ATAH, therefore,
AKHILAM, everything (i.e.the whole world),
ANANDA GHANAM, is of the stuff of this high value,
ANYAT NA VIDYATE, nothing else exists

10. sarvam hi saccidanandam neha nana'sti kincana
yah pasyatiha naneva mrtyormrtyam sa gacchati
All is indeed existence-subsistence-value,
Herein there is not even a little plurality.
He who sees (this) as pluralistic,
From death to death he goes.
SARVAM SACCIDANANDAM HI, all this is indeed existence-subsistence- value,
IHA,herein,
KINCANA, not even a little,
NANA, plurality,
NA ASTI, there is not,
IHA, in this (absolute),
YAH, he,
NANA IVA, as if pluralistic,
PASYATI, sees,
SAH, he,
MRITYOR, from death,
MRITYAM, to death,
GACCHATI, he goes.
 

ASATYA-DARSANAM(VISION OF NON-EXISTENCE) -3

Darsana Mala :ASATYA-DARSANAM(VISION OF NON-EXISTENCE) -3

1. manomayamidam sarvam na manah kvapi vidyate
ato vyomniva niladi drsyate jagadatmani

All this (world) is of mind-stuff,
The mind, however, is not anywhere.
Therefore, like the blue and so on in the sky,
The world is seen in the Self.

IDAM SARVAM,all this (world)
MANOMAYAM,is of mind-stuff,
MANAH,the mind,
KVAPI,anywhere,
NA VIDYATE,is not,
ATAH,therefore,
VYOMNIVA,in the sky,
NILADI VA,like the blue and so on,
ATMANI, in the self,
JAGAT,the world,
DRISYATE,is seen.

2. manaso'nanyaya sarvam kalpyate'vidyaya jagat
vidyaya'sau layam yati tadalekhyamiva'khilam

By nescience, which is no other than the mind,
All this world is a presentiment of the will.
This (nescience) by knowledge gets reabsorbed,
Then the whole world (becomes) a mere configuration.

MANASAH,from the mind,
ANANYAYA,which is no other,
AVIDYAYA,by nescience,
SARVAM JAGAT,all this world,
KALPYATE,is a presentiment of the will,
ASAU,this (nescience
VIDYAYA,by knowledge (i.e. true knowledge of the self),
LAYAM ITI,gets reabsorbed
 (ignorance is abolished and self-knowledge prevails),
AKHILAM,the whole (world),
ALEKHYAMIVA (BHAVATI),then it (becomes)a mere configuration (drawing

3. vijrmbhate yattamaso bhiroriha pisacavat
tadidam jagrati svapnalokavad drsyate budhaih

Here, what a coward finds through darkness
To be like a looming ghost,
The same is seen to be by the wise
Like a dream-world of a waking state.

IHA,here (i.e. from a workaday standpoint),
BHIROH,to a coward,
TAMASAH,through darkness,
PISACAVAT,like a ghost,
YAT,what,
VIJRIMBHATE,looms,
TAT IDAM,that same(i.e. what is visible),
BUDHAIH,by the wise,
JAGRATI,of the wakeful state,
SVAPNALOKAVAD,like a dream-world,
DRSYATE,is seen.

4. sankalpakalpitam drsyam sankalpo yatra vidyate
drsyam tatra ca nanyatra kutracidrajjusarpavat.

This visible world results from a willing presentiment.
Where willing is present alone
Is this visible world seen, not anywhere else,
As a snake, too, when alone a rope is found.

DRISYAM,this visible world is seen (results),
SANKALPA KALPITAM,(as) a presentimaent of the will,
YATRA,where,
SANKALPAH VIDYATE,willing is present,
TATRA CA,there alone,
DRISYAM VIDYATE,this visible (world) (exists),
ANYATRA KUTRACID NA,not anywhere else,
RAJJUSARPAVAT,as a snake too where alone a rope (is found)

5. sankalpamanasoh kascinnahi bhedo'sti yanmanah
tadavidyatmahprahkyam indrajalam ivadbhutam

Between the will and the mind,
There is no difference at all,
That which is mind and called nescience and darkness,
Like the magic of Indra, is a marvel.
SANKALPA MANASAH,as between the will and the mind,
KASCIT BHEDAH,any difference,
NA HI ASTI,there is none at all,
AVIYA TAMAH RAKHYAM,what is called nescience and darkness,
YAT MANAH,which is mind,
TAT,that,
INDRAJALAM IVA,like the magic of Indra,
ADBHUTAM,is a marvel

6. maricikavatprajnasya jagadatmani bhasate
balasya satyamiti ca pratibimbamiva bhramat

Like a mirage, to a wise man,
The world looms in the Self,
Just as to an infant, by confusion,
A reflected image might real seem too.

PRAJNASYA,to a wise man,(who can discriminate between what is
real and what is unreal,
JAGAT,the world,
MARICIKAVAT,like a mirage,
ATMANI,in the self,
BHASATE,shines,looms,
BALASYA,to an infant
(without discrimination),
BHRAMAT,by confusion,
PRATIBIMBAM IVA,
like a reflected image,
SATYAM ITI CA,as if real too,
(BHASATE), might seem

7. atma na ksiravadyati rupantaramato'khilam
vivartamindrajalena vidyate nirmitam yatha

This Self, like milk (that turns),
Does not attain to another form.
Therefore, the whole (universe), as if created
By Indra's magic, exists as (an eidetic) presentiment.

ATMA,the self,
KSHIRAVAT,like milk,
RUPA ANTARAM,to another form,
NA YATHA INDRAJALENA NIRMITAM,as if created by Indra's magic,
VIVARTAM VIDYATE,exists as (an eidetic) presentiment,
(i.e.being non-existent,it appears as existent)

8. mayaiva jagatamadikaranam nirmitam taya
sarvam hi mayino nanyadasatyam siddhijalavat

Maya itself is the prime (material) cause
Of the world, by that which is no other
Than the Maya-maker (Self) is all this
Created, as various magical effects.

MAYA IVA,maya itself is,
JAGATAM,of the world,(with varied forms),
ADI KARANAM,the prime material cause,
MAYINAH NA ANYAT,what is no other than the maya-maker,(i.e. the self),
SIDDHIJALAVAT ASATYAM,as various unreal magical
effects,
SARVAM,everything,(i.e. the whole world),
TAYA HI,indeed by herself(i.e. by maya),
NIRMITAM,created,made

9. vibhati visvam vrddhasya viyadvanamivatmani
asatyam putrika rupam balasyeva viparyayam

To the mature mind, this universe
Looms like a sky-forest in the Self -
Even as an unreal puppet-form
To a child (would seem) contrariwise.

VISVAM,the universe,
VRIDDHASYA,to the mature mind,
VIYADVANAM IVA,like a sky-forest,
ATMANI,in the self,
VIBHATI,seems,
ASATYAM,unreal,
PUTRIKA RUPAM, puppet form,
BALASYA,to a child,
VIPARYAYAM IVA,as contrariwise (would seem)

10. ekam satyam na dvitiyam hyasatyam bhati satyavat
silaiva sivalingam na dvitiyam silpina krtam

One (alone) is real, not a second,
What is unreal, indeed, seems as being real.
The Siva Lingam is stone itself,
Not a second made by the mason.

EKAM SATYAM,one (alone) is real,
DVITIYAM NA,not a second,
ASATYAM HI, what is unreal indeed,
SATYAVAT BHATI,seems as being real,
SILA IVA SIVA LINGAM,the siva lingam is stone itself,
SILPINA KRITAM DVITIYAM NA,not a second made by a mason
 

MAYA-DARSANAM (VISION BY NEGATION)-4

Darsana Mala :- MAYA-DARSANAM (VISION BY NEGATION)-4

1.na'vidyate ya sa maya vidya'vidya para'para
tamah pradhanam prakrtirbahudha saiva bhasate

What is not real, that is Negation,
Which by itself, as by science-nescience,
Transcendence-immanence, darkness and prime potency
Of nature, in many forms looms.

YA NAVIDYATE,what is not real,
SA MAYA,that is negation,
SA EVA,itself,
VIDYA,science,
AVIDYA,nescience,
PARA,transcendance,
APARA,immanence,
TAMAH,darkness,
PRADHANAM,prime potency,
PRAKRITIH,nature,
(ITI) BAHUDHA,(thus)in many forms,
BHASATE,looms

2. pragutpatteryatha'bhavo mrdeva brahmanah prthak
na vidyate brahma hi ya sa maya'mevaibhava

Just as for the origin of the pot the clay itself is
In its non-being,(so too before the origin of the world),
as other than the world,
What had no being as the Absolute itself,
Such is Maya , the negative principle
of indeterminate possibility.

YATHA,just as,
(GHATASYA) UTPATTEH PRAG,before the origin (of the pot),
ABHAVAH,the non-existence,
MRID-EVA,is the clay itself,
(TATHA JAGAT UTPATTEH PRAK),(in the same way, before the origin of the world),
YA BRAMANAH PRTHAK NA VIDYATE,what as other than the absolute is not there,
YA BRAHMA HI,what is the absolute indeed,
SA MAYA AMEYAVAIBHAVA,such is the negative principle of indeterminate possibility

3. anatma na sadatma saditi vidyotate yaya
sa vidyeyam yatha rajjusarpatattvadharanam

"The non-Self is unreal, the Self is real."
Thus what looms is vidya (knowledge),
As the reality of the snake (appearance)
(Superimposed) on the rope-reality is understood.

ATMA SAT,the self is real,
ANATMA NA SAT,the non-self is unreal
ITI YAYA VIDYOTATE,thus what looms,
SA IYAM VIDYA,that what is here is knowledge,
YATHA-RAJJU-SARPA-TATTVA-AVADHARANAM,as the reality of the snake (superimposed) on the reality of the rope is understood

4. atma na sad anatma saditi vidyotate yaya
saiva'vidya yatha rajjusarpayoryatharthadrk

"The Self is unreal, the non-Self is real."
Thus what looms is avidya (nescience) indeed,
As the erroneous cognition
As between rope and snake.

ATMA NA SAT,the self is unreal,
ANATMA SAT,the non-self is real,
ITI YAYA VIDYOTATE,that what looms (in awareness),
SA EVA AVIDYA, that indeed is nescience,
YATHA RAJJU-SARPAYOR-AYATHARTHA-DRIK,as the erroneous cognition as between rope and snake

5. indriyani manobuddhipancapranadayo yaya
visrjyante saiva para suksmangani cidatmanah

The senses, the mind, intelligence and the five
Vital tendencies, what creates-
That is the transcendent (para) indeed, even (they being)
The subtle limbs of the reasoning Self.

CIDATMANAH,of the reasoning self (which is the vital principle),
SUKSHMA-ANGANI,the subtle limbs,
INDRIYANI,the senses,
MANO-BUDDHI-PANCAPRANADAYAH,mind,intelligence,the five vital
tendencies,etc.,
YAYA,that by which,
VISRJYANTE,is created,
SA-EVA PARA,that indeed is the transcendant aspect (of maya)
NOTE JNANENDRIYAS: the five organs of knowledge; hearing (SROTRA),
sight (CAKSUS),touch (TVAK),taste (RASANA) and smell (GHRAND)
KARMENDRIYAS:the five organs of action;speech (VAK),grasping
(PANI),legs (PADA),excretory organs (PAYO) and sex organs
(UPASTHA)PANCA PRANAS:the five vital tendencies;the upward vital
tendency,(PRANA),the downward (APANA),the equalizing (SAMANA),
the outgoing,(UDANA) and the evenly spread (VYANA)

6. aganyetanyavastabhya sukhi dukhiva muhyati
cidatma mayaya svasya tattvato'sti na kincana

Adopting as its own these limbs, the reasoning Self,
By its own negative base of error, imagines
(Itself) as if happy or suffering,
In truth, there is nothing at all.

CIDATMA,the reasoning self (which is the vital principle),
SVASYA MAYAYA,by its own negative base of error,
ANGANI-ETANI-AVASHTHABYA,adopting as its own these limbs,
SUKHI IVA,as if happy,
DUKHI-IVA,as if suffering,
MUHYATI,imagines,
TATTVATAH,in truth,
KINCANA NA ASTI,there is nothing at all

7. indriyanam hi visayah prapanco'yam visrjyate
yayasaiva para'dhyatmasthulasankalpanamayi

The objective data of the senses, which is the world,
What emanates forth - that indeed,
In the context of the Self, is the immanent (apara),
The basis of all gross presentiments of the will.

INDRIYANAM HI,of the senses indeed,
VISHAYAH,the objective data,
AYAM PRAPANCAH,which is the world,
YAYA,by what (maya factors),
VISRIJYANTE,emanates forth,
SA-EVA,that indeed,
ADHYATMA-STHULA-SANKALPANAMAYI APARA,which in the context of the self is the basis therein of all gross presentiments of the will, is the immanent

8. suktikayam yatha'jnanam rajatasya yadatmani
kalpitasya nidanam tattama ityavagamyate

As the ignorance about the mother-of-pearl
Is the basis of the silver-presentiment,
So too what in the Self is the basis (of the world),
That is known as darkness (tamas).

YATHA,as,
SUKTIKAYAM,in the mother-of-pearl,
KALPITASYA,what is a presentiment,
RAJATASYA,of silver,
AJNANAM,lack of knowledge
NIDANAM,the basis,
BHAVATI,is,
TATHA,so,
ATMANI,in the self,
YAD,that which,
KALPITASYA,of what is imagined,
JAGATAH,as the world,
NIDANAM,the basis,
AJNANAM,lack of knowledge,
TAT-TAMAH-ITI-AVAGAMYATE,this is known as darkness

9. dhiyate'smin prakarsena bije vrksa ivakhilam
atah pradhanyato va'sya pradhanamiti kathyate

Because of being that aspect (of Maya) which is a marvel,
By containing all this (universe) like a tree in a seed,
Or by virtue of its importance (above others),
This here is known as the prime potent power (pradhana).

BIJE-VRIKSHA-IVA-AKHILAM,as the tree in the seed,everything,
ASMIN,in this (i.e.in this aspect of maya),
PRAKARSHENA DHIYATE,contains as a marvel,
ITI ATAH VA,or else it,
ASYA,of this,
PRADHANYATAH (VA),(or) its importance
,IDAM,this,
PRADHANAM -ITI- KATHYATE,is known as the prime potent power.

10. karotiti prakarsena prakrtyaiva gunan prthak
nigadyate'sau prakrtiritihatrigunatmika

By its very nature, because in a marvellous way
It diversifies the three nature modalities,
This aspect (of Maya) consisting of the three
Modalities is well known as Nature (prakrti).

PRAKRTYA-EVA,by its very nature,
GUNAN,the nature modalities,
PRAKARSHENA,in a marvellous way,
PRTHAK KAROTI-ITI,in that it diversifies,
ASAU,(this aspect of maya),
TRIGUNATMIKA,as consisting of the three modalities,
PRAKRTIH-ITI-HA NIGADYATE,it is well-known as nature (PRAKRTI)
 

BHANA-DARSANAM (VISION OF CONSCIOUSNESS)-5

Darsana Mala :- BHANA-DARSANAM (VISION OF CONSCIOUSNESS)-5

1.antarbahirvadasinam sada bhramaracancalam
bhanam dvidhaiva samanyam visesa iti bhidyate

Present equally within (and) without,
In constant bee-agitation,
Consciousness is of two kinds-
The generic and the specific.

BAHIRVAD ANTAH ASINAM,present as within (and) without,
SADA BRAHMARA-CANCALAM-BHANAM,in constant bee-agitation,
consciousness,
SAMANYAM VISESAH ITI,as the generic and the specific,
DVIDHA-EVA BHIDYATE,is of two kinds

2. sthulam suksmam karanam ca turyam ceti caturvidham
bhanasrayam hi tannama bhanasyapyupyacaryate

As the concrete, the subtle, the causal and the Absolute,
Basic consciousness (is) of four kinds,
So these names even (of basic consciousness)
Are also applicable to consciousness.

STHULAM,(as the) concrete,
SUKSHMAM,the subtle,
KARANAM,the causal,
TURYAM CA ITI,and the absolute,
CATURVIDHAM,(there are) four kinds,
BHANASRAYAM (BHAVATI),of basic consciousness,
TAT NAMA HI,these names too,
BHANASYA API,for consciousness also,
UPACARYATE CA,are applicable also

3. drsyatmiha kayo'ham ghato'yamiti drsyate
sthulamasritya yadbhanam sthulam taditi manyate

Lo, here, "I am the body, this is the pot,"
Depending on the concrete,
What looms in consciousness,
That is known as the concrete.

IHA,here (in a visible manner),
DRSYATAM,lo,
AHAM KAYAH ,I am the body,
AYAM GHATAH ITI,this is the pot,
STHULAM-ASRITYA,depending on the concrete,
YAT BHANAM DRSYATE,what looms as consciousness,
TAT STHULAM ITI MANYATE,that is known as the concrete

4. atra kayo ghata iti bhanam yattadvisisyate
tatha'hamayamiti yat samanyamiti ca smrtam

Here, what is the consciousness of the body
And the pot, that is the specific,
Likewise too what is (the consciousness of) "I" or "this"
Is known as the generic.

ATAR,here (in what has been said above),
KAYAH,(of) the body,
GHATAH,the pot,ITI BHANAM YAT,what is the consciousness,
TAT VASISHYATE,that is the specific,
TATHA,likewise,AHAM,(of)"I",
AYAM,"this",
(BHANAM) YAT,what is (the consciousness),
(TAT) SAMANYAM-ITI CA SMRTAM,(this) as the generic is known

5. indriyani manobuddhivisayah panca vayavah
bhasyante yena tatsuksmam asya suksmasrayatvatah

The senses, mind, intellect, interest items
And the five vital tendencies,
By what are made conscious - that is (know as) the subtle.
Because of dependence on the subtle.

INDRIYANI,the senses (such as hearing),
MANO-BUDDHI,mind (and) intellect,
VISHAYAH,interest items,(like sound and form),
PANCAVAYAVAHA,the five vital tendencies,
YENA BHASYANTE,by what is made conscious,
ASYA SUKSHMASRAYATVATAH,because of dependence on the subtle,
TAT SUKSHMAM (ITI MANYATE),this (is known) as the subtle

6. ajno'hamiti yadbhanam tatkaranamudhartam
atra'hamiti samanyam viseso'jna iti sphurat

"I am ignorant" Such a consciousness
Is said to be the causal.
Here , that aspect which stands for "I" is the generic,
And the specific what stands for "am ignorant"

AJNOHAM,"I am ignorant",
ITI BHANAM YAT,such a (specific) consciousness,
TAT KARANAM ITI UDAHRITAM is said to be causal,
ATRA,here,
AHAM-ITI YAT TAT SMANYAM,what stands for "I" is the generic,
AJNANAH ITI SPHURAT (YAT TAT) VISESHAH (CA BHAVATI), (and that which) makes for the consciousness "am ignorant" is the specific.

7. aham brahmeti yadbhanam tatturyamiti samsyate
samanyamahamitiyamso brahmetyatra visisyate

"I am the Absolute." Thus what consciousness attains
Is praised as (the consciousness of) the Absolute.
Here, the element "I" is the generic,
And "Absolute" is its specific attribute.

AHAM BRAHMA-ITI BHANAM YAT,"I am the Absolute"- thus what
consciousness makes,
TAT-TURYAM-ITI SAMSYATE,is praised as that absolute (consciousness),
ATRA,here,
AHAM-ITI-AMSAH SAMANYAM,the element "I" is the generic,
BRAHMA-ITI (AMSAH) VISISHYATE, (the element that refers to)the absolute is the specific

8. yatra bhanam tatra bhasyam bhanam yatra na
samanyamahamitiyamso brahmetyatra visisyate

Where consciousness (exists), there the
Object of consciousness (exists), where
Consciousness exists not, its object neither.
Thus, both by agreement and difference, certitude comes.

YATRA BHANAM (VARTATE),where consciousness (exists),
TATRA BHASYAM VARTATE,there (exists) the object of consciousness,
YATRA BHANAM NA (VARTATE),where consciousness (exists) not,
TARA BHASYAM NA VARTATE,the object of consciousness (exists) not,
ITI-ANVAYENA VYATIRIKENA API BODHYATE,so by agreement and
difference certitude comes

9. yatha drgdrsamatmanam svayamatma na pasyati
ato na bhasyate hyatma yam pasyati sa bhasyate

As with the eye which cannot see itself,
(So) the Self does not see itself,
Therefore indeed, the Self is not the object of consciousness.
That which the Self sees is the object of consciousness.

YATHA DRIG-DRISAM SVAYAM NA PASYATI,as with the eye that cannot see itself, (TATHA) ATMA ATMANAM (SVAYAM) NA PASYATI,(so) the self does not see itself,
ATA ATMA NA BHASYATE HI,therefore indeed the self is not the object of consciousness,
ATMA-YAM PASYATI SA BHASYATE, that which the self sees is the object of consciousness

10. yadbhasyate tadadhyastam anadhyastam na bhasyate
yadadhyastam tadasadapyanadhyastam sadeva tat

What is the object of consciousness, that is conditioned,
What is unconditioned, that is not the object of consciousness.
What is conditioned is non-existent,
But what is unconditioned, itself THE EXISTENT IS THAT.

YAD BHASYATE,what is the object of consciousness,
TAD ADHYASTAM (BHAVATI)that is conditioned,
YADANADHYASTAM,what is unconditioned,
TAT NA BHASYATE,that is not the object of consciousness,
YAD ADHYASTAM, what is conditioned,
TAT ASAD,that is non-existent,
API YAT ANADHYASTAM, and what is unconditioned (i.e. the self),
TAT SAD-EVA,itself THE EXISTENT IS THAT
 

JNANA-DARSANAM (VISION OF AWARENESS)-7

Re: Darsana Mala :- JNANA-DARSANAM (VISION OF AWARENESS)-7

1 jnanamekam hi nirupadhikam sopadhikam ca tat
ahankaridhinam yajjnanam tannirupadhikam

Awareness is one and unconditioned indeed,
There is also the conditioned.
Awareness without egoism, etc.,
That is the unconditioned.

JNANAM-EKAM NIRUPADHIKAM HI,awareness is one and unconditioned indeed,
SOPADHIKAM CA TAT,that is also the conditioned,
YAT JNANAM AHAMKARADI-HINAM,awareness without egoism,etc.,
TAT NIRUPADHIKAM,that is the unconditioned

2. ahantaya'ntarbahirasti yadevamidantaya
bhanavrttya'nvitam yattu jnanam sopadhikam

That which is accompanied by egoism as if inside,
And which again as qualified by this-ness is
Accompanied by conscious activity,
Such awareness is to be understood as conditioned.

YAT,that which,
AHANTAYA BHANA VRITTYANVITAM ANTAH, accompanied by the active consciousness of egoism inside,
EVAM YATTU,that by which again,
IDANTAYA (BHANA VRITTYANVITAM CA) ASTI,as if accompanied by active consciousness thisness) as outside,
(TAT) JNANAM,(that) awareness,
SOPADHIKAM (ITI)
MATAM,is understood to be conditioned

3. anatmanamahankaradinam yenanubhuyate
saksi tadatmajnanam syadyenaivamrtamasyate

That by which are experienced all things
Of the non-Self, such as egoism, etc.,
And even by which immortality is enjoyed,
(As) the Witness, is Self-awareness.

ANATMANAM,of things pertaining to the non self,
AHAMKARADINAM,such as egoism,etc,
SAKSHI,the witness(i.e. the self),
YENA-ANUBHUYATE, what is experienced,
YENA-EVA,by which even,
AMRITAM,immortality,
ASYATE,is enjoyed,
TAT-ATMA-JNANAM SYAD,that is (absolute) self-awareness

4. ahankaradi karyam yadanatmakamasankhyakam
yenavagamyate'natmajnanam tadavadharyate

As innumerable effects of egoism, etc.,
What as pertaining to the non-Self
Attains to awareness, that is said to be
Awareness of the non-Self.

YAT,what,
ANATMAKAM,as pertaining to the non self,
ASANKHYAKAM,as innumerable,
AHANKAR ADI KARYAM,as effects such as egoism etc.,
YENA,by what,
AVAGAMYATE,awareness attains,
TAT,that,ANATMAJNANAM (ITI),as awareness of the non-self,
AVADHARYATE,it is said to be

5. yathavadvastuvijnanam rajjutattvabodhavat
yattadyatharthavijnanamayatharthamato'nyatha

Knowing things as they really are,
As when one attains to the truth of the rope,
What makes for such is true awareness,
Wrong awareness is what is otherwise.

RAJJU-TATTVA-AVABODHAVAT,like the right knowledge about the rope,
YATHAVAT-VASTU-VIJNANAM,awareness of things as they really are,
YAT,which,
TAT-YATHARTHA-VIJNANAM,that is right awareness,
ATHAH ANYATHE,what is different from this,
AVATHARTHAM (CA BHAVATI),wrong awareness(too becomes)

6. yatsannidhyadeva sarvam bhasate svayameva tat
pratyaksajnanamiticaparoksamiti laksyate

By the very presence of which everything looms
In consciousness by itself,
That awareness is indicated as empirical awareness,
And also as non-transcendental awareness.

YAT-SANNIDHYAD-EVA,by the very presence of which,
SARVAM SVAYAM-EVA BHASATE,everything looms in consciousness by itself,
TAT,that,
PRATYAKSHA-JNANAM-ITI,as empirical awareness,
APAROKSHAM-ITI CA and also as non-transcendental awareness,
LAKSHYATE,is indicated

7. yaya'nusadhakam sadhyam miyate jnanarupaya
vrttya sa'numitissahacarasyamskarajanyaya

That function of awareness by which
The means to an end is appraised,
And which arises out of associative innate disposition,
That is inferential awareness.

YAYA,that by which,
SAHACARYA-SAMSKARA-JANYAYA,as originating in associative innate disposition,
JNANARUPAYA,having the form of awareness,
VRTTYA,by function,
ANUSADHAKAM SADHYAM,means for ends,
MIYATE,are brought into awareness,
SA-ANUMITI,this is inferential (awareness)

8. gatva samipam meyasya miyate srutalaksanah
yaya samvitsopamitirmrgo'yamiti rupaya

On going near to an object to be ascertained,
What - in the form of "this is the animal
known by such marks"-
Is the functional basis for certitude,
That is (said to be) analogical awareness.

MEYASYA,of the object to be known,
SAMIPAM,near,
GATVA,going,
SRUTA-LAKSHANAH MRIGAH-AYAM-ITI RUPAYA,in the
form of " this is the animal having the marks I heard about",
YAYA (VRITTYA),by what (functional activity),
(MEYAH) MIYATE,(what is to be understood) is brought into awareness,
SA SAMVIT UPAMITIH,this is analogical awareness

9. aham mameti jnanam yadidam taditi yacca tat
jivajnanam tadaparamindriyajnanamisyate

That awareness of "I" and "mine"
And that other as "this" or "that"-
The former as vital awareness, and the latter
As sense awareness, is declared.

AHAM MAMA-ITI JNANAM YAT,that awareness expressing itself as "I"and "mine",
TAT JIVA-JNANAM,that as vital awareness,
APARAM IDAM TAD-ITI JNANAM YAT,and that which also expresses itself as "this"and "that",
TAT INDRIYA JNANAM CA, that as sense awareness
,ISHYATE,is declared

10. om tatsaditi nirdistam brahmataiyamupagattam
kalpanadivihinam yattatparajnanamiryate

Designated as AUM, THAT EXISTS,
Attained to unity of Absolute and Self,
Devoid of willing and other functions -
That is said to be the ultimate awareness.

AUM-TAT-SAD-ITI NIRDISHTAM,that which is designated as "aum- that-exists",
BRAHMATMA AIKYAM,the unity of the self and the absolute,
UPAGATTAM,havingattained,
KALPANADI VIHINAM,devoid of all willing,
(JNANAM) YAT,what awareness there is,
TAT-PARAJNANAM (ITI) IRYATE, that is said to be the ultimate awareness

BHAKTI-DARSANAM (VISION BY CONTEMPLATION)-8

Darsana Mala :- BHAKTI-DARSANAM (VISION BY CONTEMPLATION)-8

1. bhaktiratmanusandhanamatma'nandaghano yatah
atmanamanusandhatte sadaivatmavidatmana

Meditation on the Self is contemplation,
Because the Self consists of bliss,
A knower of the Self meditates by the Self,
Upon the Self, for ever.

ATMAANUSANDHAMNAM,meditation on theself,
BHAKTIH,contemplation,
YATAH,because,
ATMA,theself,
ANANDAGHANAH (BHAVATI),Consists of bliss,
TATAH,for that reason,
ATMAVID,a knower of the self,
ATMANAM,the self,
ATMANA,by the self,
SADA-EVA,forever always,
ANUSANDHATTE,meditates upon

2. anusandhiyate brahma brahmanandaghanam yatah
sada brahmanusandhanam bhaktirityavagamyate

The Absolute is meditated upon
Because it consists of bliss.
Constant meditation on the Absolute
Is thus known as contemplation.

BRAHMA,the absolute,
ANUSANDHIYATE,is meditated upon,
YATAH,because of this,
BRAHMA,the absolute,
ANANDAGHANAM, consists of bliss,
SADA BRAHMA-ANUSANDHANAM,constant meditation on the absolute,
BHAKTIHITI-AVAGAMYATE,is thus known as contemplation

3. anandameva dhyayanti sarve duhkham na kascana
yadanandaparam dhyanam bhaktirityupadisyate

It is even bliss that all do meditate,
No one at all (meditates) suffering.
That which is meditation of bliss,
As contemplation it is thought.

SARVE,all,ANADAM-EVA,even bliss,
DHYAYANTI,do meditate,
KASCANA,no-one,
DUHKAM,suffering,
NA (DHYAYATI),does not (meditate),
YAT,that which,
ANANDAPARAM,as pertaining to bliss,
DHYANAM,meditation,
(TAT),(that),BHAKTIH-ITI,as contemplation,
UPADISYATE,it is taught

4. atmaiva brahma bhajati nanyamatmanamatmavit
bhajatiti yadatmanam bhaktirityabhidhiyate

It is the Self alone that contemplates the Absolute;
The knower of the Self
Meditates on the Self, and not on any other.
That which is meditation on the Self
Is said to be contemplation.

ATMA-EVA BRAHMA,it is the self alone that is the absolute,
ATMAVIT,the knower of the self,
ATMANAM,on the self,
BHAJATI,meditates,
ANYAM NA (BHAJATI),does not (meditate) any other,
ATMANAM,on the self,
BHAJATI-ITI-YAT,that which is meditation,
(TAT)BHAKTIH-ITI, (that) as contemplation,
ABHIDHIYATE,is said to be

5. ananda atma brahmeti namaitasyaiva tanyate
iti niscitadhiryasya sa bhakta iti visrutah

Bliss, the Self and the Absolute
Are said to be the names of this alone.
In whom there is such sure awareness,
He as a contemplative is well known.

ANANDAH ATMA BRAHMA-ITI,bliss,the self and the absolute,
ETASYA-EVA NAMA,are the names of this alone,
ANYATE,is said to be,
ITI,thus,
YASYA,of whom,
NISCTADHIH (ASTI),there(is) sure awareness,
SAH,he,BHAKTAH IVA VISRUTAH,so as a contemplative is well known

6. anando'hamaham brahma'tma'hamasmiti rupatah
bhavena satatam yasya sa bhakta iti visrutah

"I am Bliss, I am the Absolute, I am the Self."
In whom, in such forms,
There is always creative imagination,
As a contemplative he is well known.

AHAM ANANDAHA-ASMI,"I am bliss",
AHAM BRAHMA (ASMI)," I am the absolute",
AHAM ATMA (ASMI),”I am the self”,
ITI RUPATAH,in such forms,
YASYA,in whom,
SATATAM,always,
BHAVANA (ASTI),there (is) creative imagination,
SA BHAKTAH ITI VISRUTAH,as a contemplative he is well known

7. bharya bhajati bhartaram bhartta bharyam na
svanandameva bhajati sarvopi visayastitam

The wife does not merely adore the husband,
Nor the husband merely adore the wife,
It is self-bliss alone that they adore,
As lodged within every sensuous object.

BHARYA BHARTARAM, the wife,the husband,
NAKEVALAM BHAJATI, does not merely,
BHARTTA-BHARYAM,the husband the wife,
NA BHAJATI,does not merely adore,
SARVAH-API,even every,
VISHAYA-STHITAM,lodged within every sensuous object,
SVANANDAM EVA,it is even self-bliss,
BHAJATI,(they) adore

8. evam pasyati kutrapi vidvanatmasukham vina
na kincidaparam tasya bhaktireva gariyasi

For the wise man who sees
Thus at any place whatever,
There is nothing at all other than Self-bliss.
(Such) contemplation verily is the highest.

EVAM,thus,VIDVAN,the wise man(of self-knowledge),
KUTRAPI,at any place whatever,
ATMA SUKHAM VINA,other than self-bliss,
APARAMKINCID(API),(even) a little of anything else,
NA PASYATI,does not see,
TASYA BHAKTIH-EVA,his contemplation verily,
GARIYASI,is most exalted

9. lokasya pitari svasyagurau pitari matari
satyasya sthapitari ca tatpathenaiva yatari

Towards the Father of the World, to one`s
Spiritual teacher, father, mother,
Towards the Founders of Truth, and
Towards those who walk in the same path;

LOKASYA PITARI,towards the father of the world,
SVASYA,to one's,
GURAU PITARI MATARI,spiritual teacher,father,mother,
SATYASYA STHAPITARI,towards the founders of truth,
TAT-PATHENA-EVAYATARI,towards those who walk in the same path

10. niyantari nisiddhasya sarvesam hitakarttari
yo'nurago bhaktiratra sa para paramatmani

Towards those who put down evil,
And those who do good to all -
What sympathy there is, is devotion here,
(While) what here belongs to the Self Supreme is the ultimate.

NISHIDHASYA NIYANATARI,towards those who put down evil (i.e.
towards those who control (their subjects) from forbidden actions),
SARVESAM HITA KARTTARI (CA),(also) towards those who do good to all,
ANURANGAH YA,what sympathy there is,
SA BHAKTIH,that is devotion,
ATRA PARAMATMANI,what belongs to the supreme self,
SA PARA,that is the ultimate (devotion)

NIRVANA-DARSANAM (VISION OF EMANCIPATION)-10

Darsana Mala :- NIRVANA DARSANAM (VISION OF EMANCIPATION)-10

1.  nirvanam dvividham suddhamasuddham ceti tatra yat
suddham nirvasanam tadvadasuddham vasananvitam

Emancipation is of two kinds -
What is pure and what is impure.
What is without incipient memory-factors, that is pure,
Likewise, what is qualified by incipient memory-factors is impure.

NIRVANAM,emancipation (i.e. absorbtion),
SUDDHAM-ASUDDHAM-CA-ITI,as pure and impure,
DVIVIDHAM,of two kinds,
TATRA,of these,
YAT NIRVASANAM,what is without incipient memory factors,
TAT SUDDHAM,that is pure,
TADVAT,likewise,
YAT-VASANA ANVITAM,what is qualified by incipient memory factors,
(TAT) ASUDDHAM (CA BHAVATI),(that becomes) the impure

2. atisuddham suddhamiti suddham ca dvividham tatha
asuddhasuddhancasuddhamasuddhasuddhamucyate

As pure and extra-pure,thus
Are two kinds, likewise,
The impure also as impure-pure
And impure-impure is spoken of.

SUDDHAM CA,the pure also,
ATISUDDHAM-SUDDHAM ITI,(as) the extra-pure and the pure,
DVIVIDHAM,of two kinds,
TATHA,likewise,
ASUDDHAM-CA,the impure also,
ASUDDHA-SUDDHAM ASUDDHA ASUDDHAM (ITI DVIVIDHAM) UCHYATE,pure-impure and impure-impure are spoken of

3. atisuddham tridha pascadvare caikam variyasi
ekamekam varisthe'tha suddham brahmavidisthitam

The extra-pure is again of three kinds -
One is the elect, one is the more elect,
One is the most elect - while the pure
Exists in the (simple) knower of the Absolute.

ATISUDDHAM,the extra-pure,
PASCAT TRIDHA,again is of three kinds,
EKAM VARE,one in the elect (knower of the absolute),
EKAM VARIYASI,one in the more elect (superior knower of the absolute),
EKAM VARISHTHE,one in the most elect (most superior knower of the
absolute),
STHA,while,
SUDDHAM,the pure,
BRAHMAVIDI CA STHITAM,exists in the (simple) knower of the absolute

4. asuddhasuddham virajastamo'nyatsarajastamaha
mumuksau prathamam vidyat dvitiyam siddhikamisu

The impure - pure is without passion and inertia,
- the other is with passion and inertia.
The former as in one who desires liberation,
While the latter as in one who desire psychic powers is to be known.

ASUDDHA-SUDDHAM,the impure-pure,
VIRAJAS-TAMAH,is without passion and inertia,
ANYAT,the other (i.e. the impure-impure),
SARAJAS-TAMAH,is with passion and inertia,
PRATHAMAM,the former,
MUMUKSHAU,(as) in one who desires liberation,
DVITIYAM,the latter,
SIDDHIKAMESU,(as) in those who desire psychic powers,
VIDYAT,is to be known

5. dagdhva jnanagnina sarvamuddisya jagatam hitam
karoti vidhivatkarma brahmavidbrahmani sthitah

Established in the Absolute, a knower of the Absolute,
By the fire of wisdom having burnt everything up,
Aiming at the good of the world,
Performs action according to what is considered as right.

BRAHMANI STHITAH,established in the absolute,
BRAHMAVIT,a knower of the absolute,(i.e.a man who is emancipated while still alive),
JNANAGNINA,by the fire of wisdom,
SARVAM DAGDHVA,having burnt everything up,
JAGATAM HITAM UDDISYA,aiming at the good of the world,
VIDHIVAT KARMA KAROTI,performs actions according to what is considered as right

6. samnasya sarvakarmani satatam brahmanisthaya
yascaratyavanau dehayatrayai brahmavidvarah

(He who) renouncing all action,
Always established in the Absolute,
Continues the course of the bodily life,
In the world - (he) is the elect knower of the Absolute.

YAH,he who,
SARVA-KARMANI SAMNASYA,renouncing all action,
SATATAM BRAHMANISHTHAYA,always established in the absolute,
DEHA YATRA YAI,continuing the course of the daily life,
AVANAU CARATI,wandering in the world,
(SAH) BRAHMAVIDVARAH,(he) is the elect knower of the absolute

7. anyena vedito vetti na vetti svayameva yah
sa variyan sada brahmanirvanamayam asnute

(He who) being informed by another is able to know,
But (he) himself does not know-
He is the more elect, who always
Enjoys absorption in the Absolute.

YAH,he (i.e. the the jivanmukta,or man attaining liberation while
still alive,
ANYENA VEDITAH,being informed by another,
VETTI,is able to know,
SVAYAM-EVA,then by himself,
NA VETTI,does not know,
SAH VARIYAN,he is the more elect,
AYAM,such a one,
SADA,always,
BRAHMANIRVANAM,absorption in the absolute,
ASNUTE,enjoys

8. svayam na vetti kincinna vedito'pi tathaiva yah
sa varisthah sada vrttisunyo'yam brahma kevalam

(He who) by himself does not know anything,
And even when made to know (knows) not -
Such a one, always void of activity,
The most elect, is the Absolute alone (in itself).

YAH,he who,
SVAYAM,by himself,
KINCIT,anything,
NA VETTI,does not know,
TATHAIVA VEDITAH-API,and likewise even when made to know,
NA (VETTI),(he) knows not,
SA VARISHTHAH,he is the most elect,
NYAM,such a one,
VRITTI-SUNYAH,void of activity,
KEVALAM BRAHMA,is the absolute alone (in himself)

9. heyopadeyata nahyasya'tma va svaprakasakah
iti matva nivartteta vrttirnavarttate punah

Of this (world) there is certainly nothing to be accepted or rejected,
As for the Self, it is self-luminous.
Having understood (thus), one should withdraw (from all functionings),
Thereafter, function does not repeat (itself).

ASYA,of this (world),
HEYA UPADEYATA,rejection or acceptance,
NA-HI,certainly there is not,
ATMA-VA,as for the self,
SVA PRAKASAKAHA,it is self-luminous,
ITI MATVA,having understood thus,
NIVARTTETA,one should withdraw (from all activity),
PUNAH,thereafter,
VRITTIH,function,
NA AVARTATE,does not repeat (itself)

10. ekameva'dvitiyam brahmasti nanyanna samsayah
iti vidvannivartteta dvaitannavartate punah.

The one Absolute alone there is without a second,
Nothing else there is, no doubt herein.
Having thus understood, the well-instructed one
From duality should withdraw, (he) does not return again.

ADVITIYAM,without a second,
BRAHMA EKAM-EVA (ASTI),one absolute alone (there is),
NA ANYAT ASTI,nothing else there is,
(ATRA) NA SAMSAYAH,(here) is no doubt,
ITI MATVA,having thus understood,
VIDVAN,the well-instructed one,
(ATRA) NA SAMSAYAH,(here) is no doubt,
ITI MATVA,having thus understood,
VIDVAN,the well-instructed one,
DVAITAT,from duality,
NIVARTTETA,should withdraw,
(SAH) PUNAH NA-AVARTTATE,(he) does not return again

An Interpretation by Swami Muni Nrayana Prasad

SVANUBHAVAGITI (Lyric of ecstatic self-experience)

Guru gave dictation of this Malayalam work to Karuva Krishnan Asan,
While he was residing at Aruvippuram around 1984. The first three sets of ten verses were separately named Anubhuti Dasakam (Ten Verses Ecstatic Experience), Prapancasuddhi Dasakam (Ten Verses on Clarity about the Phenomenal World), and Parama Siva cinta Dasakam (Ten Verses on Reflections on Parama Siva). The rest of the work was named Vibhu Darsanam (Visualizing the All-pervading God). Forty verses are missing after ten verses of this section. Krishnan Aasan repeatedly appealed Guru to rewrite the missing verses. His reply was simply; its author does not exist now. Someone else trying to fill it up will be improper.
Giti is the metre in which it is composed. Scholars hail this work as The Tiruvaskam of the Malayalam language.
Amrta-tarangini (The River of Immortal Elixir) is another name by which the work is known.

1

Auspiciousness will best
Be bestowed on me
By the all-knower,
The one all-harmonizing abode.
With no attachment
Towards anything,
To the enemy of the mind-born (Eros)
Open will remain my eyes.

2

In to the eyes that see,
Isn’t everything seen
Ceaselessly merging and becoming lost?
Likewise is sound
Merging in the being of ears,
And in to the being of skin
The object concerned also vanishes.

3

Vanish thus, becoming lost,
All the six tastes
In to the being of tongues.
Thus wise go and vanish
Everything treatable as “this”.
Then all that remains alone
Are the mouth-like senses.

4

Senses alone then stay behind
Instantaneously the senses too
Become extinguished.
Left behind then is utter darkness alone.
Comparable is this
To a rope-walkers’ experience,
When the rope is cut
And all balance lost.

5

Lost all, and then remains a dark emptiness,
And in it is seen shining
The most intimate one.
On becoming assured that
That intimate One is oneself,
The natural end of all suffering occurs.
How can there be darkness spreading
Around the bright sun shining?

6

Shining over is oneself alone-
This revelation may naturally
Lead to being ensnared in
The lack of interest in being active.
When moving up to
One’s own proper abode-
The one substantial abode of all of us-
Alone, is it that we find real happiness.

7

Happiness-ocean, lo and behold!
Rises up and overspreads
By itself everywhere.
By entering it through wisdom
The drinking of it is relished
By the parama-hamsa type of people.

8

People, perceiving this,
Remain in the stable state
Of no birth, no death.
With the tender seeking mind
Becoming merged in that state,
Incessant contentment comes forth.

9

The coming forth of this contentment,
When subjected to thinking, even once,
Loses all its charm that
Fills and overflows the heart.
With no idea formed about it,
Instantaneously merged
In the one reality becomes he.

10

The one who thinks
‘He’, the ‘other person’ and the like
Though a pati, is really a pasu
When all desires are
Flawlessly uprooted,
The waters of undefiled happiness
Come rushing forth.

11

Coming all at once
Are flocks of fears.
They, seeing this radiance,
Get out of the way
All of a sudden.
Yet again this becomes enveloped
By darkness again, only to
Once again emerge as perceptible,
This sweet honey water.
12

Water, fire and the like-
Assuming all these forms shine,
Filling both inside and outside,
The one concealed reality
Its secret, when found out,
Is just as plain to one as
A palm-held goose-berry.

13

The berry, that the Reality is,
Is from which and in which
Al this golden attire
Emerges and perceptible shines.
Just before wearing
The moon as crown
(For your dance performance).
The moon remains hidden
And yet perceptibly radiates its cool rays.
Such you are, the radiance.

14

Radiance is essence
You appear before me (at the stage)
And manifest as pure as space,
Devouring everything.
Playing as being the all five
Elements such as space,
Is your sacred dance-drama.

15

The dance-drama no sooner is perceived,
Than one finds itself
Firmly and neutrally existing.
He who exists thus
For a long time uninterrupted
In this neutral state
Lives in happiness.

16

Happiness is all this;
The more it is cogitated upon
The more it is felt as
Wholly filled with beauty.
Closely perceived, it’s revealed,
You descend to become
Even this gross earth,
Transforming even in to this perceiver
That merely is a cage.

17

The cage that this body
And all such is
Blazing in wisdom-fire,
Just as a dewdrop
In bright daylight,
On its own, becomes extinguished.

18

The extinguished sense organs
Instantaneously become functionless
And following it, all obstructions
Get out of the way.
Comparable is it to a tree,
Cut at bottom,
On its own falls down.

19

Falling down, all this
Becomes transformed as
Pure effulgence experienced
As filling the entire space.
The one who falls into
This grand bonfire,
Doesn’t he become lost it in?
This indeed is kavivalya.

20

The kavivalya-ocean altogether
Attains its own purity;
It alone is the means.
Cessation of being
An individual being
Happens immediately
And all the moss recedes,
This is the attainable ultimate goal.

21

The ultimate goal, - please
Grant me its attainment.
O the Destroyer of Cities,
This alone is all that
You ought to do, O Lord.
O Hara, the Plunder,
O Siva, the most Superior,
Please destroyed, please destroyed
The brightness as well as
The all-filling darkness

22

Darkness and brightness----
Untouched by all such,
Is the effulgence that you are.
O the showering-everywhere-
Flower-rain,
By your grace alone
D I, being ignorant,
Prattle like this one boon,
This day please grace me!

23

O Grace, blessed by you,
As a sport is it that
I do speak like this,
O the ever-hiding
Invaluable secret.
O Darkness, O Brightness,
O the
Grace the remains
As the golden mean,
O the ever-sporting
Heart-filling Substance!

24

O the Substance,
The one evenly fragrant reality
The fills everywhere
O Grace, grace me.
Let me mount not
The chariot-wheel herein,
O the Transcendental One.

25

O the Transcendental One,
O Pasupti, the Supreme
Commander of the evening
Of all the waves
In the transcendental (ocean).
O Destroyer, bid me
To be close to you;
To remain here
Even for a moment
Never let me, never let me.

26

Never let me, simply
An individuated soul,
Try the impossible task
Of describing your glory
That simply is pure
All-filling effulgence.
Without a bit of your grace
How could I be here
Like this, O Siva.

27

O Siva, descending from you
Do emerge and graze here
Ears, eyes and the like.
Subsequently everything comes along
With these grazing ones as well;
What a mysterious magic all this is!

28

The mysterious magic’s
Dust-veil will vanish.
O the transcendental brightness
Hidden by the very same dust-veil!
Even a negligible being here
Is that One in essence.
Totally removing that veil
You appear again,
A fiery smoke!

29

O smoke, O Particle,
O inside, O Outside,
O Space, O the sufficiently
Pouring fresh rain,
O the hereafter,
O the mind-world,
Mercifully please confer
Contentment in my interior

30

Interior and exterior----

Devoid of both,
You, O Lord, exist filling
The being of everything.
In your eye of fame
Is burned off everything
Making them mere perceptible
Thus is utterly hateful.

31

The hateful ‘this’ is
Melted away by you,
O Narahari, like butter
All that creates hindrance
Is henceforth burned off
And turned into smoke
That rises up circling the sky----
O the so-doing Fire!

32

Fire, water, earth----
All such molten down
Grow large and get transformed
As a re-echoing inner sound-
O that Sound!
All the four
Sacred scriptures search for
Is the holy foot of yours
Wearing jingling bells that call

33

O the call, O the invaluable
Resounding bell ringing!
O the bumble bee
That always comes
Hummingly when hidden!
You make ash-like
All the unstables like
Fragrance, taste and sound.
O the bringer of that state!

34

Stately darkness approaching
Are you, like a turbulent
Storm ceaselessly raging?
Or are you the one who
Dances adorned with
Water on head
To make (the dance), you,
Wrapping elephant-hide?

35

With hide for attire
You, with your holy feet,
Trample upon and annihilate Kali,
O such a furious Kali!
O the state of being that
Exterminates the evils of Kali
O the all-changefulness-causing
Sole shelter-giving head!

36

At one end appear
Darkness and brightness altering,
The other offering boons—
Such you are felt to be
By the invaluable creeper you support,
O the heavenly Tree!
Impossible indeed is
Knowing all that is
Invaluable in you.
All the mighty enemies
Fade away in your
Harmonious presence—
That is the sole Truth.

37

Truth is impossible
To elucidate really,
Despite all the stories
Of your mysterious deeds;
Therefore comparable it is
Only to itself.
O that one Truth
All the scriptures attempt to expound!
O the ever-unknown
All-filling Meaning.

38

Meaning and Word
Transcending both,
Going beyond even the duality
Of grace and the transcendental,
You remain, O the ever-swaying ocean.
Please dampen this parched mouth
With a little bit of your Grace- water
Does this action
The ocean of ever-swelling Grace
Even a bit lessened?

39

Less attainable
Is what the scriptures aim at,
O the other shore of what
Those scriptures aim at !
Your fullness – what a wonder! –
Always remains unattained;
At last you should knowing
This mystery full well.

40

Fulness of concrete parts
Along with abstractness,
When all this disappears there arises
You, the one casual Reality,
O that one!
One word, plenitude, is there
Proclaimable in the company of sages
Such as sanaka and the like
O that one word!

81

Unaware of all this are we;
What a pitiful mystery
Great indeed is your
Particular amusement.
The golden creeper entwines you
Forming an inseparable part of you,
O the Original Tree!

82

O the Original Tree,
The fruit o0f yours
Alone is my sole shelter
From now on.
Your twin feet alone
Are the flowers my head
Should be adorned with.
Aren’t you be Original Mountain
Always united with the golden creeper?
O what a magic-like vision!

83

A magic-like vision all this is;
Have you not seen in spite of
Three eyes you have?
O the eye-like-dear-gem
Shining adorned with the bright moon,
At your blossom-like feet
My humble salutations!

84

The saluting one am I;
Thus please caressingly unite me
With your holy feet,
Separating me off from this falsity,
Considering me as
A dear child of yours
So doing is a responsibility of yours.

85

Your responsibility apart
Nothing exists here,
O the Lord of Beings,
Adorned with the crescent moon!
To the mighty tusk of this mountainous Maya
Please do not sell myself

86

Sell your lovely twin blossom-feet
Instead, to this humble one,
O the Slivery Mountain
Adorned with water at the top!
Charmingly singing cuckoos
Mount the golden creeper
Always supported by you
O the Ever-new Tree!

87

O the Ever-new Tree!
The golden creeper growing on you
Causers the spreading out of
Everything notable as ‘this’ or ‘that’,
All owing to your twin feet-flowers
Fall on my head, and
My body become merged in you.

88

Merged at your feet
Let me become; abandon me out.
Let there be no
Lessening of your mercy.
Please do not go away avoiding me
Treating me to be a person
With not even a crumb of compassion to other beings.

89

Do not go away any more;
At your feet I should becomes lost
Or else I’ll be burnt up,
Falling in this dark ocean,
Resulting in all sorts of grief;
Should tell you all this

90

If there is no need of
Telling you all this,
Please adorn my crown
With your wisdom-feet.
Transcending all knowledge
(You and I) will become one;
Though ignorant of it,
(You and I) always remain one;
O the essence of wisdom!

91

Scriptures spelt out by scholars
Fall into and get lost in the ears;
Likewise everything here becomes
Lost in the being of yours,
The beginning less and endless One---
You are that Reality.

92

That Reality you are, still
You remain, inseparable from me
Even when I remain unaware
Of being so, O the best
Of all the riches.
No other refuge do I have;
By sharing with me your boringness,
Please calmly put an end
To my state of being a pasu, O pati.

93

O pati, not knowing who
The pati is, many here
Do meander in search of you,
Get confused not reaching anywhere
Due to their undue arguments,
And around you they go.

94

Go and become lost in you, do
The earth, fire, water, air and space,
As is their due as part of the whole.
Lo! Heaven and hell too
Are seen to have become lost in you
Becoming the non-dual One.
Lo and behold! This humble I
Also am lost and devoured by you.

95

You are the on Reality
Bottomless, topless, middle less;
Beyond my comprehension as well,
And you make manifest
All these apparent forms,
While still remaining totally
Beyond everything, O that one!

96

One is real; no, two are real;
This knowing ‘I’ too is real---
Turning to such varying stands
Let me not hesitantly waver.
All of these arise from
And are one with you alone,
The all-untruth-transcending-one.

97

Transcending both day and night,
Transcending both word and meaning,
Is the beauteous from of yours

My dying means only
You totally acquiring me,
This individuated from;
What else in its there?

98

What else is there than
You enveloping my inside
And outside delusively?
I am approaching you, seeking

99

While everything including
Hills and mountains,
Remains close friends of your feet,
Why did you surrender
To my golden creeper
That decided to count on you?
All this I don’t understand!

100

I don’t understand at all,
How you wonderfully come back
Always to my thought,
O the one, consciousness in essence,
That is beyond all conscious thought.
The burnt-down I-senses
Adorned with crescent, you are;
O the most tender, lovely one!

An interpretation By Guru Nity Chaitanya Yati

Isavasya Upanishad 1 This is. This envelops All. Apart from this not even an iota Is left in the whole. It was a mistake to objectivise. Everything is back to its own, to Isvara. Knowing “That Thou Art,” enjoy; do not grab. Whose can be the desired anyway? 2 Performing your apportioned duties, claiming no agency of action, desire to live a hundred years of blessedness. Nothing else is expected of you. Be assured, no stain of action will cling to the person. 3 There is a domonic world enveloped by darkness, confused. The marauders of the Self go into it, dead in Spirit. 4 Established forever, although faster thn the mind, the One moves not. The senses do not find this, which has gone beyond. Remaining steadfast, it transcends all. In that, the energizing nourisher (matarisva) apportions each one's appropriate function. 5 That does move, that does not move. That is very far, that is very close. That is inside of everything, that is outside of everything (also). 6 The one who continually sees all being in the atman (Self) alone, like that, in all manifested factors the Self also, that person, because of such a vision, never becomes repulsed. 7 In whom all beings are known as self alone, what delusion is there or what sorrow to one who beholds this unity? 8 That environs pure and transparent, bodiless, flawless, deviod of anatomical system, sinless, poetic wisdom permeating, self-born, empirically valid, eternal, functionally distributed evenly 9 Into blinding darkness enter those who workship ignorance. And into still greater darkness as it were enter those who delight in knowledge itself. 10 Other is the use of knowledge, they say, the use of ognorance is another. Thus we have heard from wise who have explained that to us. 11 One who knows both of these together, knowledge and ignorance, having over come death with ignorance, enjoys immortality with knowledge. 12 Into blinding darkness enter they who worship non-becoming Into darkness greater than that, as it were, enter they who delight in becoming. 13 Other is that which pertains to becoming, they say, that which pertains to non-becoming is another. Thus we have heard it from the wise who have explained that to us. 14 One who knows both of these together, becoming and destruction, having overcome death with destruction, enjoys immortality with becoming. 15 The faith of truth is convered with a golden disk. That, I Nourisher (Sun), may you remove so that I see the truthful performance of duties. 16 O Nourisher of this world, lone wanderer, who gives a meaningful pause between events, the supreme magnetic center of the heavens, born of the primal father of all beings, restrain thy beams. Gather this brilliant effulgance. Let me see that, your most auspicious form. That person (purusha), whio shines in the sun, let me assure myself that I am that. 17 Breath enters into the atmospheric wind. This body will end in ashes. AUM, remember the purpose of my doing actions, remember what I have done. 18 O fire, by a bright path lead us to prosperty, shining one who knowest all the ways. Keep far from us the sin that accrues as action. Most ample expression of adoration to you we render. AUM, peace,peace,peace.

An interpretation By Swami Muni Narayana Prasad

TEVARAPPATIKAMKAL

Trvaram, in the classical Tamil literature, is the body of hymns composed by the three Saiva saints Appar, Sundarar and Tirujnana Sambandar. Narayana Guru’s Tamil hymns on Siva are also on the same lines, using the same classical Tamil. Patikam means “a set of ten verses” These five patikams were possibly written around 1887.

I

1

O the origin of wisdom! O wisdom embodied!
O the ultimate goal having no name and the like
Who is the Original Transcendental Reality-You or me?
Won’t you tell me what the answer would be?
O Lord of the place named Arumanoor
Sought out even by the honey-like
Devout aspirants camping in Tillai,
O he who shares the body
Of her who has deer’s eyes!
So sole guide to all the Nayanars!

2

Please protect me along with the life-principle;
This body is filled with the three dirts.
O God, O the Great One, protect me
From being helplessly caught
Within the Pincers of the scorpion.
Look at the days that pass behind
One by one, squeezing the span life.
O he who spends his days in Arumanoor,
Give me your feet for refuge and bless me!
O Lord and the sole guide to all the Nayanars.

3

As the manifest and manifest,
And as both non-dually
As the one and as the many,
As the life of life,
As enlightenment and grace,
As the point where the rolling on
Of the wheel comes to its end,
As the neutral, non-dual effulgence,
As darkness and as brightness
As here as well as the hereafter,
As this day and that day,
You wondrously reside in Arumanoor
Please come close and possess me,
O Lord, the sole guide to all the Nayanars!

4

Identified with space and with mountains too
Withered am I now.
Before the life-span fades out meaninglessly,
O the one who assumes the forms
Of body and possessor
Of the one of the three,
Come closely and bless me!
Taking on the forms of forests,
Of fire and roaring sea,
Of rain clouds and of the sky,
And even of the place called Arumanoor
S your mysterious existence!
The Transcendental Reality that you are
Signified by the word ‘That’,
Please bless me giving your feet
O the sole guide to all the Nayanars!

5

As flowers and as their fragrance,
As the vitality always associated with them,
As atomically small and as plenitude
And also as the one spread-out-as-well-as-all;
As fire, as form and as the perceptible,
As honey-like delicious immortal elixir,
You do emerge all –radiance.

Come close by and protecting possess me,
O the eternal, O the one of final fulfillment,
O the God residing in Arumanoor,
Of the one who never ages,
O the original one, O honey,
O the sole guide to all the Nayanars!

6
Vishnu and Brahma are in search of you,
And to them you remain unattained,
As pure fire in form.
Come and save me from death
With the playful deer on your left.
Protectively possess me never to separate,
O the great one extremely dear
Even to the gods of heaven,
O the god who rules over
The lovely town of Arumanoor,
O flower, the sole guide to all Nayanars!

7
The envoys of the god of Death
May arrive at any moment;
At the very moment,
Grant me the refuge of your feet.
O the one of form of mountain,
O the protecting umbrella,
O the one whose wealth is wisdom
Graciously protect me,
O God of all living beings.
Then as well as now, I am just a dog
Before your effulgent feet.
And you are taking your position
Alone in Arumanoor.
Grant me a hold on your holy feet
O lord, the sole guide to all the Nayanars!

8
Those who devotedly cling
To your holy feet for refuge
Become freed of all abuses
And the like forever.
Conferring such constant protection,
You are ‘that’ in essence,
The anguish less one.
Even as residing in Arumanoor
Please arrive before me,
So that no afflictions affect me.
Grant me your holy feet
O lord, the sole guide to all the Nayanars!

9
O the gold-like excellent one!
O gem! O emerald!
O flower! O honey! O pollen grain!
O deer! O peacock!
O cuckoo! O Great Mountain!
O hard rock! O the extensive terrain!
What a mystery you are!
Please protect this humblest dog!
While reigning alone arumanoor
Please give me your feet for refuge,
O lord, the sole guide to all the Nayanars!

10
This mind of yours is as hard
As rock, or wood, or steel even,
I am well aware of it.
Still, should it happen to leave
Your feet any moment day or night.
Then all is lost; I am such.
As the inexpressible word
That crowns all the scriptures,
You do remain in arumanoor
Deep in austere penance,
O goodness embodied!
O gem for all sages,
Please safeguard me!
O lord, the sole guide to all the nayanars!

II
1

O the incomparable Consciousness –Fire
That fills everywhere
And the one source of Happiness
For all the non-blinking ones3
Safeguarding me from falling
In to the ever-swelling ocean of becoming,
Benignly bless me!
O the divine effulgence of contentment
That shines adorned wit
The crescent moon on the matted hair!
O golden creeper,
Protectively wind around me,
O the ocean of kindness!

2
Of Fire, your holy body,
Smeared with holy ashes,
Shines well in the moon light.
Pray safeguard me from becoming
Immersed in the ocean of hell
And benignly bless me!
If, by meditating upon
The brightly burning form of yours
One surrenders oneself before,
Taking fruits and vegetables
And water alone for food,
You will pour upon that one
Supreme happiness,
O the Transcental brightness!

3
O Fire, O Brightness emerging from
The blazing being of yours
Always surrounded by gods,
O ocean of light filling all,
Your tresses expandingly grow
To become the matted hair-crown,
Seated wherein are seen
The crescent, Ganga and the snakes.
Without seeing your throat
That, by swallowing poison
Enabled the elixir of Immortality
To become well-seasoned,
What meaning is there
In living in this world?
On the singing cuckoo
Adorned with the laburnum-flower.

4

Along with Uma of
Breasts shaped like
Tender coconuts, and
Of voice resembling the cuckoo’s!
Oh the one with the body horripilated
By the gem-like wisdom-formula
Taught by the peacock –Rider;
And the sun, moon and fire
Forming the fish-like three eyes,
Associated always with
Snakes, water and matted hair,
Let this impure dog-like one
See that form of yours
In the form of this world!

5
Grant me the state,
That is no object of knowledge,
And not perceptible to senses,
That is plenitude of pure consciousness,
Beyond even the world of gods,
And within the being of which
Become extinct both body and life.
O the unconditioned, blemishless,
Wave less ocean of stillness,
Bless me with the favour
Of not being caught in
The snare of the uprising
And down falling waves!

6

Like a mouth less pot,
Let me not get lost
In the boundless ocean of becoming
Floating here and there about
As though an aimless dog-
Bless me with this favour
Let me take refuge in
The deer that runs very fast,
In the axe and the snake
Having its hood spread out,
In your matted hair and
The crescent moon leaning on it,
In your twin feet,
As also in all that pertains to you!

7
You, once upon a time,
Hiding behind the city-entrance,
Made the golden mountain you bow,
And bending and tightening it,
You did burn down
The entire three cities;
That God of gods
Is my only lord!
At the place called pothu4
Common always to all,
Where you ecstatically dance always,
This humble self is
Like a worthless dog!
Lost in the Maya of
The ever-changing world,
Like a wave in the sea,
I do always remain
Ignorant of Truth.
Ha, what is all this?
O the Red-bodied One!

8

The Red-bodied One!
Siva the Great,
The wearer of skull-garland,
He who reign over everything
And cuts asunder the roots of
Repeated births by imparting
The holy wisdom-formula.
He who chops down properly
All egoistic haughtiness,
He who is called by the great
As the half-woman-bodied,
And as the resident of
The dreadful graveyard-
Being such, lo and behold!
How is it that you
Assume this human form
To protect us the humans!
Won’t you tell me?

9

Undivided as spoken words
And their meaning is the being
Of the great one; how did he
Assume this phenomenal form?
Never becoming ripe
Is the way he grows
What could it be like,
O golden effulgence?
What can I exchange
For the kindness you show
To put an end to my drowsiness?
What can I do,
O the ocean of kindness,
Incompetent for anything is this humble being.

10
Humble being this self,
I made no attempt to know you
Through austere penances;
Nor did I bow myself daily
Before the head of the assembly5
Nor did I shed tears
Through the eyes’ corners
On beholding your feet;
Nor did I compose
Garland- like poems
Praising your holy feet
Adorned always by the four6,
Devoutely on their heads.
You did cause my origin
As a dog-like slave
On the surface of this earth.
How can I attain salvation?
Tell me, O Lord!

III

1
AUM, the original cause of everything
Is nothing but you, the only Reality
That unfolds itself and grows
Assuming the form of the worlds everywhere,
O God, the universal being!
Let me not identify myself
With the gross body consisting of
Space, fire, earth, water and air
As also the animating brightness:
This alone is the ultimate gain I seek.

2
Happiness indeed is this sacred formula;
Would it not be imparted to me
Once more by the Goddess of Words?
If, when approaching the lord,
The all protecting one, it is
Uttered loudly by the devotees
Graced by His own blessings,
It results in happiness alone!
That Holy Formula, indeed, is everything!

3
All the souls are your apparent form;
All the bodies are yourself;
All the worlds are your sporting alone;
Nothing other than, has being
O the God of gods,
O the supreme God
Who protect all the beings
Gracefully protect us
By rendering un to dust
All the evils of this world.

4
O the lord that rides on a bull,
O silent effulgence that fills everywhere,
With no distinguishing marks,
And who swallows up and spits out
All the twenty one worlds,
The lord seated in flower (Brahma)
And Vishnu exultantly enter your being
Not leaving even a speck of dust behind;
Such being your form,
Who is there enlightened to it?

5
O the Reality denoted by the word ‘that’,
Who are you? Are you the cloud
The mountain, the ocean,
The heaven where the gods meet,
The earth or tender flowers?
This humble being that lies
Under your feet
Does not understand you.
On the one adorned with
The watery river, be graceful
And tell me who you are.
O the unblemished one,
Protect us eternally!
6

On the stainless one,
Of the eternal one,
Of the fearless one,
Of the attribute less one,
Dog-like on this earth
Is this insignificant being.
Protect me eternally from destruction.
O Lord of cosmic dance (Natesa)
Who killed the God of death
By trampling him under your feet,
Please shower your blessings
All over this earth
And thus protect us
O Siva, the Great One!

7
O the abode of greatness,
O the crescent-wearing hidden
Meaning-content of scriptures,
O the one adorned with
The swaying crown of matted hair,
O the effulgent form
Always saluted by the gods,
Please come and bless us!
O honey brightness,
O sweetness the one who blesses
Us with divine blissfulness.
O the sole refuge,
O the one who enlightens
The twelve scriptures of the south.

8
Those who awaken to you
Are the one of real wisdom
Of the wakeful consciousness that
Shines as everything everywhere,
Of the golden mountain,
Of the flower that blossoms
Beyond the bounds of understanding,
O water the ever-new immortal elixir,
O the one, knowledge in content,
Please come around and bless us!
O fire,O space,O wind,
O the expansive earth,
Come around please!

9

O the gem that nurtures
Ganga in its matted hair,
Come along! Come along!
O my own darling-consciousness,
O lotus that all the scriptures
Teach as the final goal,
O effulgence that protects
All the gods and the like,
O the ship that comes around
In the untraversable ocean,
Protect me graciously,
O the enemy of hell,
Adorned with the river!

10
Caught in the net cast by
Damsels of bewitching dark eyes,
Who will not perish?
Don’t you see this predicament?
The buffalo-vehicled one6
As well as Vishnu do not see
Even a particle of your
Essence of immortal beingness.
Won’t you bless me,
O the great Lord?

IV

1

Devoid of the seen-seer-sight distinction,
There move around certain sky-clad seers
The one whom they offer
As oblation their own inner being
And thus uproot and burn down all evils,
Transcending categorizations of all sorts,
And remaining fully identified with
The reality visualized-that one Reality,
The one whose throat is stained,
Alone is my most adorable family deity!

2
In the plenitude of the all-sustaining existence
The non-existent world is no hindrance;
With this stance never lost
And standing firmly in the neutrality
Of that which transcends pure sound
Where all enquiries do conclude
With the I-sense also lost,
With no possibility of re-emergence-
The state thus attained
Is my most adorable deity!

3
With the relevance of space,
Earth and fire gone,
With all sufferings gone,
With the need of a residence,
Directions and defects gone,
With all the desires gone,
With the cyclic rotation of time gone,
What remains as pure Effulgence,
With not even the ember
Of burning wisdom remaining,
With the relevance of relatives,
One’s own guru and primeval cause gone,
The great silence that continues to exist,
Is my dearest adorable deity!

4
With relevance of the three hundred
And thirty three million gods gone,
With the differentiation of
The three presiding deities gone, 7
With the imaginary dualistic world,
Like the lotus blooming in mirage, gone,
With the relevance of the three
Basic realities gone, 8
With the relevance of the three worlds9 gone,
With relevance of the three
Kinds of liberation gone,
What appears before me
The three-eyed guru, the Jewel of jewels,
Is my dearest family deity!

5
With word and mind gone
What shines as the expansive
Space-filling effulgence
With no specific perceptible form,
Yet filling all that is perceivable,
And perceivable everywhere as a mystery,
As subtler than the subtlest,
As self-effulgent existence,
That compassionate one who protects us
Is my dearest family deity!

6
Having dissolved in to the functioning mind
The illusory apparent world
That unfolds itself owing to
The very same mind’s functions,
And dissolving that mind
In to the casual vitality,
And thus all the unfoldments
Having attained their term,
What remains as
A flaming fuel-less fire-
That plenitude of
Existence-consciousness-value10
Is the treasure I pray for!

7
The real Brahman
Appears otherwise due to illusion,
And because of it, ritualists,
Caught in prarabdha karmas
Remain blind.
As where the blind men
Who saw the elephant.
O mercy-maker,
To embrace the karmas they do,
Is it aimed at making them their own,
That ritualists, blind as they are,
Remain engaged in karmas?
What ultimate gain would be theirs?

8
“Everything indeed consists of his deeds,”
Is the simple saying we are graced with;
And it was uttered without words
By those who realized
The pure effulgence of blissfulness
In to which become sacrificed
Many a thousand cosmic systems
On perceiving it as ineffably
Subtler than the subtlest.
Is it possible
To be liberated form
The phenomenon of birth (and death)
In this world, without reaching
This realm of awareness,
O Siva, the one deity?

9

“Everything indeed is myself, myself”
With this realization of unity attained,
And that too having become
Merged and lost in your being,
Where the differentiation of you and me.
Has no meaning at all,
One finds all afflictions terminated.
Saying so, yet afflicted
With the sense of belonging
I stand before you with hands folded.
Let me become free of sufferings
O the ocean of blissfulness!

10
In the fullness of Sat11
The asat12 having become no hindrance,
With the notion of the one
Ancient cause gone,
The relevance of a mould
As well as the effect-idea gone,
With all the concepts gone,
The non-dual reality that pervades
The being of tat and tvam13
That banisher of death
And the related sufferings,
That bottomless form
Is my adorable deity!

V

1
If you think of the absolute as mind in essence
Then comes matter as opposed to it;
On the other hand,

If one think of the Absolute as Reality
Then appearance comes as opposed to it,
If one think of the Absolute as
Pleasure-giving experience,
Then opposed to it is
Pain-giving experience,
That Reality which has
For its essential quality
The absence of all such (dualities)
Is always the absolute, my God!

2
Beyond the mind-matter duality,
Beyond the reality-appearance duality,
Beyond the bondage-liberation duality,
Beyond the defect of seeing
Numerous perceptibles,
What radiates filling
The being of all such,
And what, like sweetness in sugar,
Exists captivating the inner being
Is, in essence, the God
I adore always!

3

If thought of as one
Then comes against it all dualities;
An ascending hill is always
Followed by a descending deep.
Absorbing all such shortcomings
Into Himself there exists Pinjaka (Siva)
The one who captivates the minds
Of those filled with pure love,
And his playful manifestation
Comprises all the worlds we see.

4

It is wrong to think of it
As existing at this moment,
If its existence is at another moment,
Then it will never be ultimately real;
How can it then attain
Destruction at a third moment?

What is felt as lovable at one moment
May be felt as detestable at another.
Lo! Even Brahma, Visnu and Rudra
Will vanish lost in this cyclic process.

5

Brahma, Visnu and Mahesvara
Rudra and also Sadasiva,
On perceiving the never-ending
Revolution of the wheel of Time,
Stand with hands folded
Before the God (who unfolds all this),
And as part of His sportive action
Let’s dissolve all the worlds,
Yet remaining symbolically as linga
Fixed well with sealing gum—
Such is the God I adore!

6

Differentiated objects are
Mere insert entities;
Contacted with senses, they assume
All the forms forming the worlds
Here as well as the hereafter
That great Effulgence,
Grace and Compassion in essence,
The Siva-Sun that shines
In the transcendental sky
Shows gorgeously and swallows up
This utter darkness, and again
Spits it out multifariously.

7

The five elements like earth,
The five sense organs and their objects,
All having merged in the being
Of pure Consciousness
That exists as ineffable
Transcending the cause - effect duality
And beyond the grasp of mind,
And that enables the enlightened ones’
Temptations to be subsumed
By its plenitude of effulgence----
Into that blemish less
All-en encompassing brightness
I offer my thoughts
As my humble tribute.

8

This body is not a dependable reality,
When will the Lord of the world
Along with the ever –new creeper
That forms part of His being,
Reach here as blooming kindliness,
So that I may become immersed
In the crystal clear immoral elixir
Of divine Bliss
And quench all my thirst,
Where the relevance of
Ends and means also become nought?

9

O the Dispenser of Mercy!
Did you spread out this world
Merely in order that
The ever-unsatisfied birds
Cold play constantly with it?
Did you let me live
In this abode of metal functions,
Taking it for a great treasure,
In order that I may enjoy the gruel
Made of weed-seeds harvested from
The waste-land of mind?
I take your feet as the sole refuge;
Worn out and totally exhausted as I am.

10

The moment Yama, unresisting,
Is caught in the trap of Siva,
At that very moment beco0mes
The effulgence of wisdom wee-revealed;
Beyond all calculations
Will then the I-sense attain
Unity with the transcendental Siva;
Such twin fragrant louts feet
Alone are my sole refuge!

Notes

1. Arumanoor is the name of a place in South kerala. There-installation of the image of Siva (called Nayanar-nayaka-siva conceived as the one who guides all the Nayanars, the Saivite saints) at this place was done by of the disciples of Narayana Guru. Yet the idol of the make-shift temple used, while the reconstruction of the main temple was going on, was installed by Guru himself, when this hymn was also written. Arumanoor literally means, ‘the lovely place’.
2. Tillai is the Tamil name for Cidambaram, the epicenter of Saivitecult.
3. Never to blink their eyes is thought of as habitual with gods(devas), the inhabitants of heaven
4. Pothu is another Tamil name of the Cidambaram town. It literally means “common to all”.
5. The sanctum sanctorum of Siva Temple at Cidambaram is known as `Cidambara sabha (The assemble of consciousness-space), sabha meaning ‘assembly’. All Saivites are supposedly assembled there with the dancing Siva heading them.
6. The four well-known Saivite saints, Appar, Sunder, Manikkavachakar and Tirujnana Sambandar.
7. Refers to Kala-the god of death.
8. Brahama, Vishnu and Mahesvara.
9. The soul, the world and God.
10. The earth, heaven and the mind-world (bhah, bhuvah and suvah).
11. Sat-cit- ananda
12. Sat means ‘existence’, the all- underlying and ever –existing causal substance.
13. Asat means ‘non-existence’or the ‘non-existent’, signifying the apparent world.
14. Tat means ‘That’, the Universal Being or the Absolute and tvan means ‘you’, signifying the individual being.
15. Yama is the god of death.

An interpretation By Swami Muni Narayana Prasad

MANNAMTALA DEVI STAVAM

Guru, in 1889, installed a new idol of Devi in the renovated temple at Mannantala in the outskirts of Trivandrum. This hymn in Malayalam was written on the occasion of the installation.

1

With the pearl –umbrella unfolded,
Flowers rained, and their fragrance
Offered in worship to the sun (that you are),
And transformed into pure effulgence,
And with all the apparent
Model qualities gone,
And with the qualified also gone,
Let me, gracefully cross
This ocean of qualities, O mother!

2

Wearing the moon
And the heavenly Ganga
In your sacred tresses
You do shine
O mother, of face
As beautiful as the moon.
O the auspicious-bodied
Mother sharing her own body
With that of Siva, the sky-clad one,
Please grant me the boons
Of preserving your lotus-feet
With my holding power for ever,
So that wisdom is not clouded
And rendered useless by ego.

3

Radiance in essence,
Your manifest forms,
When meditated upon
In everyone’s case
Owing to self-satisfaction
All heaviness ceases to be.
All then with your grace
Feel fully contented
And all the difficulties run far away.

4

Nothing is impossible because
You, always, as pure Consciousness,
Exist in the mind, giving out
Constantly what is proper
To all the worlds, O mother!
As rivers entering and becoming
Merge in the ocean,
So too what is given to knowledge
Enters your feet, and Lo!
Get transformed into that!

5

O Daughter of Daksa
O The killer of Demons,
In order that I may not
Grieve immersed in the waters
That behave as you will,
Let me live with all senses
Fully restrained, O supreme Deity!
The distress of hunger
Is serious and hard indeed to overcome
If I place myself
Totally within you and
Spend my days there,
No doubt at all, I can overcome it.

6

Vying a with a spinning top
Is the way the mind works;
With it as a means
I feel myself incapable
Of reaching the pure space
(You are residing in),
Please the mindful.
This refuge less one
Standing before you
Begs for your holy feet;
To me please grant the boon
Of merging with those feet,
O the Auspicious one!

7

Even an expert one
May get trapped in the device
Set by the sense of organs;
You certainly have
No concern for him.
If he happens to be
Depending wholly one your ideas,
They very moment, for him
Everything favorable happens
And he lives in ceaseless happiness.
For are you not Supreme Deity,
Well aware of all this?

8

Is not this physical body,
Food for vultures and the like,
The cause of all sufferings
O the great aggregate whole
Of all the small parts?
Please bestow on me
Full contentment of mind.
O my Dear, existing eternally
In close contact, caressingly,
With the sacred body
Of the one moon-wearing crown,
Please give me the boon that
All sufferings are far removed.

9

The very Goddess residing at
Mannamtala in this mannu
Remains assuming a name
Aptly true to the sense,
Within this Devi mannu is
The being of everything.
Are you not the single Deity
That organizes
Everything totally and properly?

Notes
1. The word Mannamtala means ‘the head of the world’.
2. The word mannu means both ‘the world’ and ‘Devi temple’.
3. Mannamtala Devi.
4. Mannu here means ‘Devi temple’ or the ‘domain of Devi’.
DEVI STAVAM (Hymn on Devi)

Another Malayalam works of the earlier years written possibily between 1887 and 97 at Aruvippuram. This is in the meter Pathya

1

O Mother, O The tender-leaf-like
Ever-new-bodied one,
Even the great silent could
Speak of your limbs only
Until the old-leaf-like body falls
In my case, therefore, Lo!
Your word having reached me
Resounds within and re-echoes
In its neutral fullness of Silence
2
For this reason, O Golden Fruit,
In everything that seems visible
What is real is you alone;
To prevent myself from straying away
From roaming around aimlessly
I firmly take my stand
Near your feet-flowers.
3
From gold to damsel,
Worthy of seeing as auspicious
First sights of the day,
Are all but the earth become manifests?
They are sung about as mirage-like.
You constantly protect me
By remaining close by
And the heat of my afflictions
Gets cooled down;
To enable attaining such a
Gem-like body as yours
Please blow into me
(The secret of the silent sound).
4
To the River-carrying Holy Father,
You decide always to be a helpmate-part
And you also royally arrive at the crown
Of the head of silent recluses
And below the same into me
Constantly along with
The understanding that,
From the tiniest creatures living in
Snow and partaking of it,
All the beings are nothing but
Your imagination materialized.
5
O Golden Mother,
This dust-filled body of mine
That blocks my union with you
Has no real being of its own;
O Ruby, therefore, I see
No real obstruction as such;
Please let me own your body
And again below into me
The secret of the silent sound).
6
To the ears unwilling to listen (to you)
And also to the eyes
And to that which enjoys touching,
You remain the one crown of the head;
And more, you row (the boat
Of worldly life) at its stern,
And lets us get out of it
To become merged in you;
Please grace me with that again,
And again below into me
(The secret of the silent sound).
7
Now, to the flowery moon-sheen
Emerging at the crown of your head,
To the ashes emerging the there from,
To the fire, to the water,
To the smell, and to everything
That appears here as
A specific from of yours,
I salute with hands folded.
8
Please call me, who salutes you
Back to your abode there
From here where, rowing in the ocean
I feel hapless without you;
My mind is not wax put in fire;
It is just clarified butter;
Now this mind is in a mess;
Below your bugle, O Dark Cloud!
9
The Ocean, with waves arising
From which gush forth
Foam, in rows,
Exists here in a swaying motion;
You indeed are the she-horse
That can wrestle with it.
Please withstand its depth
And chop down (the waves and foams)
And have a regal bath
In the water that doesn’t
Sway back and forth;
And with the awareness that
This alone is the safe shelter,
Again below into me
(The secret of the silent sound.)
10
Those who sing this hymn
Written in the meter Pathya
(As a theme good for all),
Never suffer afflictions;
In order to gain that,
Please offer your feet to me!

An interpretation By Shiny Lal

 

1.ADHYAAROPA DARSANAM

 

 

Adhyaaropa darsanam is the first chapter of darsanamaala. Here explain the method of attributing qualities / qualification to different items connected with science and non science subjects. Even in ordinary things we 

attribute qualities like beauty , sincerity ,etc like we say beautiful butterfly / place / home etc and devoted men /scholars/scientists/ thinkers.. Even the qualities of god are attributed by men.. By attributing many 

qualities we build an image in our mind based on which we search the ultimate truth, this is what known as adhyaaropam.

1.Before the creation of the material world and universe, nothing existed here. Only the awareness and consciousness existed which is the bodham known as the divine power (Prajnaanam Brahma). From there the 

creation occurred. 

2.All the created materials did not have the names and forms, initially. Like a magician, the universal divine power separated everything step by step and attributed qualities in (to) them and later their names.

3.Like a tree and all the qualities of that tree are hidden in the seed, the whole universe remained hidden in Brahmam which was the absolute essence of all these.

4.There are two types of forces/energies/sakti in the nature. First one is the positive and the other one is negative. The former is constructive in nature and the other one is destructive.

5.The creation of the universe was done by the divine power like an artist creates a picture or sculpture from his mind. Thus the universe is well designed and defined in a similar way as the artist draw the picture..

6.Like a yogi’s experience remain hidden in him and gets demonstrated only when he exposes them , that the qualities remain in the divine power, till it was demonstrated by creating the universe in the present form.

7.People think everything is different due to their ignorance, when the depth of knowledge increases they understand that ultimately everything is one (everything converges into one). (As we say all the four forces- 

gravitational ,electrostatic, weak and strong forces-can ultimately be converged into one). Guru compares this with in darkness (ignorance) people see the ghost, but when the light (knowledge) comes the ghost 

disappears.

8.The city (of ghost) was not there (vacuum) before it was created , like that the univers was also vacuum in where the omnipotent omnipresent divine power created the world.

9.Only one universe was created starting from the sun(s) first and then others in the order. But it is like a world is created by us in our dream, there came into existence the universe from the Brahmam /atman.

10.Like a banyan tree grows from a minute seed, the universe got developed / created /formed/…from the minute (sookshma) awareness and consciousness (swabhoda and prajnaana) which also called/known as 

akhanda bodham thus ends the Adhyaaropa darsanam chapter meant for learning and teaching the absolute reality and the experience of the akhanda bodham.

 

 

2.APAVAADADARSANAM

 

 

1.From the torrential energy came / evolved out the material world / jagath. That was minutes t and intensely dense us first. This was the essence / starting egg/embryo (brahmaandam) of all the these.Then

came the universe from that, which was present like the yogic saadhana present in yogi.

2.The cause (kaaranam) and effect (kaarya) are inseparable in many causes. What all the material world existing now were not existing initially in this form. How can a non existing thing exist and then how can 

it become non existing. It is because many of these things exist only for small duration/period and that period when compared to the age of the universe was infinitesimally small which is almost like it was none 

existed.

3.The one which existed /existing does not have evolution or destruction. What we see /feel /experience that it is existing /or it exist is nothing but maaya. (which is a mere feeling/illution)

If the effect (kaarya) exist without any separation/difference from the cause (kaaranam) then how can the effect be done? Similarly if understanding the effect is not possible clearly, how can we declare that 

the cause was not there ?

4.Brahmam is the one which was neither created nor destroyed. It is the cause and effect also. What we see here in this world /jagath is nothing but a mythya which is temporary form. Ultimately all what are 

seen are no way different from the ultimate and absolute truth which is Brahmam.

5.If only the one (advaitham) exists,then another (dwaitham) cannot exist. If another exists that means another was created,that is possible only from the first one and not separately from a non existing.

6.Even in our body each organs is created from the same zygote came into existence by the union of the egg from the mother and sperm from the father. All the organs came from this and not separately from 

outside. 

7.Even though the zygote was named so,the organs do have different names / shapes /sizes/….Ultimately they got evolved from the same zygote/embryo.

8.The only one which was existing here was the one with ‘inherent, intrinsic, self guiding, self motivating, self energizing, awareness and consciousness with all the qualities. That one is the Brahmam.

9.That one is the Sath which is the essence , it is the Swabodha consciousness’ and prajnaana (awareness).That is also told as the aananda. (as a part of sath +chith+aananda).

10.Everything has it’s qualities and qualifications derived from the sath/ essence/Brahmam. Nothing else existed/exist/seen here. If anyone thinks that there exists something else(the dwaitha bhaava)he lives in 

darkness.

 

 

3.ASATHYA DARSANAM

 

 

What is the reality ? and non reality and what is the truth and what is not? What is the essence and what is not ? What is explained in the Asathya darsanam. It is analyses of non existing which we feel as existing. 

Hence the name asathyam and its vision/understanding becomes asathya darsanam.

 

1.Everything which we perceive / feel/experience/is linked with our mind at the same time we do not know the answer for the question where and what is the mind. Just the non existing sky has non existing 

blue colour, but we feel the existence of the blue sky, like that only the universe ‘exit’ in the atman.

2.We try to established this world in our mind, the deeper our ignorance the shallower becomes our explanation about the universe. But when the ignorance is removed the shining of the absolute knowledge 

/jnaanam can be perceived. Then we can understand the absolute real /actual /truthful /essence of the cosmos exist,(in Brahmam)

3.People see the ghost in the darkness due to their ignorance and fear complex, but the yogis see the world like what is seen in a dream.

4.By partial knowledge or wrong impress , people may think a rope as a snake in darkness, like that due to the darkness of ignorance, people may think what they see in this world are all real(this is due to 

wrong understanding). 

5.The mind and the mental vision do not have much difference, the mind itself manifest in different ways due to biased knowledge or ignorance. This is just like magician manipulated our mind through his magic.

6.A wise man understands that a mirage is not real (it is the creation of the mind), but a child thinks it is water. Like this a real yogi knows that the world is only the creation of the mind (mental reflection) and 

not real.

7.This world is not created like the butter is created from the milk( the milk fat itself manifest in butter).But the world exist in the Brahmam / aatman or the aatman itself manifest as the world, like a magician 

produces many things( we feel that it is from nothing, but they are existing.)

8.The spiritual capacity /siddhi/saaadhana of a yogi is not different from the yogi himself,. It is the manifestation of the yogic power which exist in him. Like this, the world exist in the Brahmam, but it is 

manifested as maaya(=yogic capacity of the yogi /magical capacity of the magician).

9.A child thinks a doll is real, but not a grown up man. So a real yogi knows that the world is the reflection of the mind like we see the picture ‘forests’ in the clouds.

10.Ultimate fact/truth/reality is one and only one without two (advaitham)the manifestation of the one and only one.

 

 

4.MAAYAADARSANAM

 

 

This a common explanation in all the vedanthic texts and the explanation about maaya have gone deep which generally is difficult to understand. In common man’s language it is said that all these are nothing but 

maaya /illution. It echoes that nothing is permanent, everything is temporary. This maaya vaadam or maaya darsanam expains how an unreal factor /observation /experience /facts give the feeling of reality. Guru 

expains what really this maaya through the vision.

1.The maaya which is the part of the Brahmam/absolute truth does not have any form. That itself exist in two types of knowledge as Vidya and Avidya. She (maaya) demonstrates and manifests herself in 

paraavidya, aparaavidya, nature ,knowledge sakti and so on. 

2.Prior to making a pot only the clay existed. This clay manifested as a pot. Before the creation of the world the maaya existed which was the energized form of Brahmam itself. (Indirectly it is expained that Brahmam 

has to parameters inseparably remain as one, like a magnet has north pole and south pole in the same magnet)

3.Like a rope is confused as a snake but when deeply searched for the truth, the real knowledge comes out, like that when deeply searched, one understands that only that only the aatman exist and all other things 

are unreal. Here the former is known as Vidya. The wrong knowledge that a rope is a snake is created by the mind and hence it is known as Avidya. 

4.Avidya makes us think that the aatma is not real and the world is real. The feeling that the unreal is real is due to Avidya.

5.All the sensory organs, functional organs, brain, intellect, panchapraana ,etc remain active in the body due to the fact that an energy /sakti /force exist in the body which the vedantists call as paraa (paraa 

skill) which is only experience able.

6.The awareness and consciousness which itself is the manifestation of the aatman which remains strongly attached with the organs ,create impress like happiness ,unhappiness ,sorrow ,fear ,anger,etc, 

because the ‘real’ (reality) things remain hidden.

7.The energy /sakti/power /force /which can be observed through organs and which can be experimented /demonstrated externally even though it is the part of the aathman itself, it is known as apaara(this is 

also present in the same aatman with paraa like the north and south pole co exist in the magnet)

8.Some times people misunderstand that the pearl is made of silver due to ignorance, like this due to ignorance people think that the world is the aatman and they think it is real.

9.The feeling that a tree is engrossed in a seed is due to ignorance. The tree is not engrossed in the seed; only the awareness and conscious for the development of the tree is engrossed in the seed. Like this 

only the awareness and consciousness for the manifestation of the world is engrossed in the aatman. The world is not engrossed in the aatman (However there are many view points about this which are used for 

strong argumentssays Guru)

10.One should clearly understand that maaya is the embodiment of (three gunas) satwa-rajas-thamo gunas /qualities. Nature and the prakruthi are the manifestation of this maaya. Hence the nature/prakruthi has 

all the tree gunas.

 

 

5.BHAANA DARSANAM

 

 

Bhaanam is said to be the light /knowledge/reality /etc. In this vision /darsanam the explanation is given about the reality /truth in the light of knowledge /jnaanam. After knowing about asathya, maaya ,adhyaaropam 

through the explanation of Guru ,one should come to know the reality through Vedanta,in the light of knowledge /jnaanam and experience /anubhoothi /anubhava. Bhaanam means giving light /producing light. The light 

of truth /fact/essence /cause /effect /knowledge /power…..etc.

1.Bhaanam is also the inner feeling of light and realization generated as in an external source. It is said to be like a continuously flying bee creates a vibrating sound. This is like creating an inner light says 

Guru. There are two types of bhaanam one is common (saamanyam)experience and the other is unique /uncommon (visesham).

2.There are four points to be remembered when we go through this explanations. They are the presence of macro bhaanam (sthoolam), micro (sookshmam) cause (kaaranam) and beyond all these (thureeyam). 

Bhaanam word is used with the abovefour Sanskrit words to explain the appropriate natural phenomena.

3.The experience generated in the body and mind by listening /seeing /smelling /tasting /touching etc is known as sthoola (macro) bhaanam as the experience of the body/tissues and cells.

4.The macro /sthoola bhaanam is observable in all the living and nonliving substances like body. Materials /etc. This is the light of external source. For these the words I,he, it, that,etc and their relation with this 

body is applied.

5.All the sensory and functional organs, intelligence ,thoughts, etc are activated directly without an external source, but due to the influence of the inner light known as micro/sookshma bhaanam. The The 

activation of the inner self takes place due to aatma chetana/soul.

6.The experience that I get from my own ignorance or knowledge is known as the kaarana /cause bhaanam. In this approach I, MY and ME are the sthoola /macro factors but the experience is the cause factor 

/ kaarana bhaanam.

7.Beyond the three; micro,macro and cause factors,the fourth one is known as thureeya which is the bhaanam /light of realization that I myself is the Brahmam, here I and me are the common sthoola, but the 

realization of Brahmam is special, which is the thureeyam state.

8.Whenever the light exists the vision exists to see the forms /subjects. When there are no forms /subjects and whenever there is no light, then vision does not exist. Guru says only when the light 

/knowledge/power/strength/exists there exists the vision.

9.The eyes cannot see the eyes directly. Similarly the aatma cannot see the aatma the one which has to be seen using external eyes should have external or internal(source) of light. The aatma does not get 

light from external sources, so for getting the vision of aatma internal bhaanam /light is inevitable.

10.The vision of a material is obtained due to that matter get acted/activated with light. (The light and the surface molecules of the substance act together). Since two factors influence , the light become impure 

compared to the original light. Here one which does not depend upon the external light and depends only on the / illumination, that light is pure and known as ‘sath’

 

 

6.KARMA DARSANAM

 

 

Karma is the action / activity which is the manifestation of movement and energy. For every movement it is said that an immovable base (adhishtaanam) is needed. The base according to Vedanta is the 

karmashtaanam…When the universe evolved the proofs of creation, manifestation and manipulation where taking place. At that time too the movement of materials were taking place. Again for this movement such as 

rotation and revolution. The immovable base in the Brahmam and that is nischala,nirvikaara,niranjana,nishkriya…Brahmam. Guru says this is also known as sathyam….adhishtaanam( Sathyam= truth+fact+essence). 

All the movements are the demonstrations of the sakti/ force /energy/sakti. This sakti is also defined in Vedanta as the maaya. The creation /manifestation/ demonstration process is the karma and its explanation is 

karmadarsanam. 

1.The aatma does not get attached with anything even though, it appears like attached. It illuminates by itself. ( This is like electricity which never gets attached with anything whether it is bulb 

/heater/cooler/calling bell/….but the presence of electricity is demonstrated /can be seen). In the universe this aatman place the role of self manifestation to form the jagath. (In modern science it is said that creation of 

the material world from awareness).

2.(Electricity do any work, but when it passes through bulb/fan/heater/cooler/the work is being done: karma is being done- by the material connected through which the power passes). Similarly this aatma 

activates each organ of speech /listen/talk/smell/touch/walk etc… and the organs to their respective work/karma.

3.Before the karma/action/work…starts only the electricity was there as seen in a battery(not connected).From that aatma, when comes to the point of karma/action, the energy is created. The adhishtaanam of 

all the karmas is the aatma, which is the manifestation of Brahmam.

4.The aatma itself possess the energy/force which is known as the aatma chaitanya(chaithnya neans the energy). This aatma chaitanya is responsible for the chetana/karma/action/etc. Like electricity, in tools, 

activates them, that the aatma chaitanya activates where it exists.

5.Few think that “I am working because of my aatma is directing me to do so” They think the aatma is intensely involved in action too. This is wrong, this does not happen, because aatma does not do any work 

unless it gets attached with the organs. Hence the organs work in presence of aatma. Knowing this the yogis say that let the organs do their function as their original vaasana for doing so and the yogis get detached 

from karma even when their organs do the karma.

6.(Like the electricity in different instruments get converted into heat energy, magnetic energy, kinetic energy, chemical energy and so on), The same aatma chaitanya is present in( as )air, water, wind, rain, life 

force etc. 

7.It is the same aatma chaitanya which place the role of pancha praana of which the praana moves upwards and apaana moves downwards in the body. The same aatma chaitanya guides the heart beats, 

breathing rate, body temperature and so on.

8.Birth, existence, procreation, evolution, degradation and destruction are six stages in every living beings which take place due to the presence of aatma in the body. But these changes are for the body and 

not for the aatma.

9.All the organs function by its own inherent intrinsic awareness and consciousness, like the nose smells, ears hear, eyes see, legs walk/bend/..hands stretch, tongue move etc. These organs function 

without the external interference or instructions. So the yogis know that even without ‘my instruction’ they function. Hence I am different from these. And get detached.

10.Even the feeling that I and Mine is due to the existence aatma (but it disappears in deep sleep) even when the aatma remains. Hence this feelings is created in the body not from the aatma but due to the 

presence of aatma.

 

 

7.JNAANA DARSANAM

 

 

The jnaana darsana part of the darsana maala describes in detail about the relative and absolute knowledge. This part is described as it is given in Bhagavath Geetha in great details.

All the great achaaryas of Bharath have focused this subject whether they followed dwaitha siddhanta or advaitham.

1.It is told that there are two types of jnaanam/knowledge. One is the relative knowledge known as sopaadhika jnaanam and the other is absolute knowledge, the nirupaadika jnaanam. The former is a 

comparative presentation of knowledge and the latter non compared and absolute.

2.All the knowledge which are given based on my /our /I, where self is a direct or indirect factor, that knowledge is known as sopaadhika jnaanam which is relative in nature. (my house, I built it, my 

management capacity…)

3.Without ego and without projecting the self if the knowledge exists which is known as real knowledge. In this knowledge ‘I’ is only an instrument. The knowledge is unbiased and unattached, which is the 

highest level of knowledge.

4.The knowledge/ jnaanam which does not have any bearing n the aatma that knowledge is connected with the dead materials which is known as anaathmajnaanam of jadajnaanam.

5.Realization that a rope is a rope (and the realization that a rope is misunderstood as a snake) and the rope is not a snake is the real understanding. Like that one should have the real understanding 

about the truth / fact /essence of very thing which is known as yathaartha jnaana /real knowledge. Opposite of this is known as ayathaartha jnaanam. (which is like thinking a rope as a snake).

6.All the knowledge /jnaanam obtained through listening , watching, smelling etc.,are the experienceable knowledge obtained through our sensory organs. Hence known as the prathyaksha jnaanam 

/experienceable knowledge. Some times this prathyaksha jnaanam is known as aparoksha jnaanam.

7.Due to continuous co existence and from that what all experience are derived results in the evolution of a culture /samskaara. And that culture gives the knowledge due to mental analyses. This analyses take 

us to the ultimate reality through guessing and estimating which is known as anumiti. 

8.Keeping all the characteristics in our mind and then trying to prove the facts about materials /things/ etc., Is known as upamithijnaanam which is the knowledge acquired by comparison of known qualities or 

existing qualities.

9.All the knowledge which are connected with I ,me ,my ,etc are explained under the connection with my jeevathma. Hence known as jeeva jnaanam. This ,that ,it, there, are connected with indriyajnaanam. 

10.Om thath sath (the approximate meaning of this mantra is : om that is the essence /absolute truth) is connected with the relation between the jeevathma and paramaathma(Brahmam). That knowledge also 

links with many things having different names and forms (even if the things are real or imaginary like the size / form of a cow or an atom ) is known as parajnaanam (knowledge connected with others). 

 

 

8.BHAKTI DARSANAM

 

 

Bhakti is the common term used in sanathana dharma to explain the mental attitude /feeling /devotion /dedication /relation towards the god for a devotee. In this dharma the term god fearing is never used but the term 

is god loving with the feeling of bhakti. Sree Narayana Guru explains here about the bhakti right from the common man’s feeling to a yogi’s experience towards god.

1.Bhakti is directly linked with aatma. The aatma is the ghaneebhoothaa bhaava (consolidated frozen form ) which is the stabilized ecstasy) The realized souls / yogis always try to experience this aatma 

through the yogic wisdom says Guru.

2.As explained earlier , the ghaneebhootha bhaava of Brahmam is also explained as aananda in its experienceable path. The effort of a yogi or a bhakta is to go deeper to the experience of brahmaananda 

through dyaana, devotion ,prayer or saadhana. The principles behind these practice of an individual. Whether he is a yogi or a common man, are known as the bhakti.

3.Everyone is trying to get the real aananda / happiness in their life. None will be opting for sorrow. The bhakti in its absolute sense is the end of the trails for getting the absolute happiness without any 

negatives. That is achieved through the single pointed concentration of the mind with devotion.

4.Aatma itself is the Brahmam (Brahamam in its miniature form exist as jeevaatma in living beings). Those who are worshipping this aatma (aatma saadhana / aatma for saakshaatkaaram) and focusing only 

this and nothing else, is the bhakti.

5.It is said when the utmost / climax of bhakti is reached, the sath chith aananda., the aatma, aananda and Brahmam remain the same for a great yogi (even though this may look different for a common man). 

Guru says that these are the three names given to the same. Those who can understand this are known as bhakta /devotee.

6.That real bhakta /devotee will know well that I am the aatma, I am the aananda, I am the Brahma and fix his mind in the Brahmam.

7.We may think that wife worships the husband and the husband worships the wife. They are not worshipping the physical body but the aatma of each other through aathmeeyanubhooti, to get the 

aatmaananda. Which is the internal experience of the body.

8.Those bhaktaas / devotees who can experience aanannda in everything, and cannot see anything else other than the aananda, will always try to keep the bhakti in mind and in practice. He considers that 

devotion /bhakti is superior to all other feelings.

9.&10. The real bhakti /devotion of a man is that feeling /experience towards god, guru/teacher ,mother , father .incarnations / avataraas. It is the same feeling of bhakti that we get when we watch others serving with 

devotion the poor people and the people who fight against adharma and establishes dharma. This devotion/ bhakti when strongly get attached with the aatma, is known as paraa bhakti.

 

 

9.YOGA DARSANAM

 

 

Yoga darsanam has been dealt in Bhagavath Gita as yoga of bhakti /karma / inane /saankhya and so on. Patentable has given detailed description through yoga sutras the yoga darsana. Sera Narayana Guru Deva 

has submitted the whole theme in the consolidated form in this chapter of darsana maala. Yoga word means putting together joining together etc. In the yoga darsana the connecting of the pancha praana, pancha 

bhootha, pancha jnaanendriya, pancha karmendriya and manas /mind are described (21 components).

1.The factor which connects the mind with the consciousness and awareness (pranjaanam Brahma) and through which pathway the mind reaches the aatma is known as yoga according to the authentic 

literature dealing the subject of the science of philosophy (saastram).

 

2.If and only if the above connection between the mind and consciousness takes place, the drusyam / scene, drushta /seer and darsana /seeing / the process of seeing becomes real and possible. This through 

the yoga. The same yoga also connects all the above three with the vaasana (inherent , intrinsic taste / craving) of the individual.

3.What we see here are primarily composed of the atoms and they are the fundamental particles. The particles are again composed of energy / Brahmam itself. Kknowing that these are all the manifestation of 

the same Brahmam including ourselves and realizing that everything is the manifestation of one, that realization is yoga.

4.The (chittham) where the thoughts originate) without interruption, like a continuous flow of oil, exists / flows in the aatma and this union of the flow of chittham and aatma is yoga.

5.The mind continuously jump from one subject to another, influenced by the five sensory organs. Preventing the unstable mind from roaming and fixing that in the aatma is yoga. This is possible by continuous 

saadhana / practice only.

6.The wild imagination of the mind causes many expectations and desires which drags the mind and body to problems. Many imaginations, thus created, stick to our mind which becomes in the course of 

time the vaasana /cravings of the mind. This cravings, desires and imaginations are to be uprooted for fixing the mind in aatma upaasana with powerful aatma nishta / penance. This is yoga.

7.The scenes (what we see –drusyam) does not exist away from the seer (those who see-drashta). So, the seeing is temporary action / dharma performed by the eyes, happening in the seer. Knowledge that 

what are seen are nothing but the image created in the mind (and that material has not entered in to the brain only the light rays have entered through the eyes and the image is produced) is yoga. Knowing well about 

the yogi who really understands that the ultimate seer of all these are hidden in the micro body and macro universe as aatma ,is the noblest among the yogis.

8,The kundalini power of a yogi attracted by the power of praana, getting these two connected each other and observing / experience the real sweet feeling of aatmasaakshatkaaram and aatmanubhooti in the 

stabilized mind is the yoga.

9.Khechri mudra is one of the most complicated yogasana mudra which when practiced by focusing the eyes in the centre of the forehead / nostrils and folding the tongue back to touch uvula, and thus 

controlling the breathing , which when practiced one can attain a stabilized freedom from sleep and laziness or can remain active for many days.

10.Everyone should understand that there are only two types of yoga (as told by lord Krishna) the jnaana yoga and karma yoga. The former mainly focuses on learning, teaching and practicing. The latter 

` completely focuses on the mission oriented dharmic work undertaking and fulfilling with full devotion and dedication as one’s dharma. Both of these converge to one in the end of their practice.

 

 

10.NIRVAANADARSANA

 

 

Nirvaana is the state where the mind and body unites and a stabilized level is attained by relinquishing from all the worldly desires and attachments. Here, the happiness and sorrows do not give any type of feeling to 

the yogi. They live to fulfill the mission bestowed upon them by the nature. Attaining this level is practically impossible for those who are living a gentleman’s life. It needs years of saadhana. Guru explains about this 

state in this last chapter of darsana maala.

 

1.Here are two types of nirvana, the suddha nirvana (in approximate English translation words, it can be said as pure form and impure form). In an individual where there is absolutely no vaasana/inherent craving, 

that nirvana is known as pure/suddha and the other one where there is a craving and desires for worldly desires that is known as asuddha/impure nirvana.

2.Suddha nirvana is again divided as; suddha /pure and athisuddha /extra pure. Similarly asuddha nirvana is further divided into two; asuddha and asuddhasuddha nirvana. In short, the nirvana are four types; 

suddha, athisudha,asuddha,asuddhasuddha.

3.Athisuddha nirvana is of three types depending upon the level of person/yogi who attains the same. The three types of yogi are Brahma vidwara brahmavidwareeya and brahma vidwarishta. (detailed 

description of three types of yogis are given below). The suddha nirvana is practiced by the yogis who are known as brahmavid.

4.Asuddha nirvana is the experience of a yogi when he wishes to get moksha after getting himself free from all the three satwa-rajas-thamo gunas in his karmas /work/activities. However with extremely tedious 

saadhana if a yogi wishes to experience the happiness of life without expecting moksha,and also influenced by the three gunas of the action /karmas,the level of experience of nirvana is known as asuddhasuddha 

nirvana.

5.Once yogi could get the experience of Brahma thathwam/ brahma saakshaathkaaram, and getting relinquished from all types of attachment from karma, at the same time performing all the karma entrusted 

upon him(without desires / attachment/craving for the rewards) that yogi alone can experience what is meant by spiritual enlightenment.

6.(The explanations for the above statements are given here) Brahama vidwara is the yogi who after getting himself relinquished from al the worldly desires and living for others till his last breath enjoying 

mentally and physically the experience of spiritual life.

7.A yogi feeling nothing about even himself until and unless someone reminds him about it, that yogi is known as Brahma vidwareeyaa. And he always stays in the brahmaananda.

8.A yogi neither knows about himself even after reminding him about himself and never bother about himself and even his bodily activities/extends due to his focusing on the enlightened experience of spiritual 

life, that yogi is known as Brahma vidwarishta.

9.For jeevanmuktha sanyaasi /yogi/Rushi, there is nothing in this world to accept or reject. He feels thathis aatma always shines and illuminates with glittering light from within. The yogi who can experience 

this level never returns to the common way of life again, that level is known as jeevanmuktha level.

10.Brahmam is the one and only one which exists and there is none/nothing other than this Brahmam. No doubt about this says Guru. The Yogi who knows about this will not have a rebirth/punarjanma. He 

never gets himself involved in any worldly matters for himself.

 

KALI NATAKAM By Sree Narayana Guru

Adoration Oh, Embodiment of Nada and Bindu,

the Imperishable, adoration to Your lotus feet, ever woshipped by saints like Narada.

Oh, pearl-bedecked sacred Lamp of Wisdom

that illuminates the four Vedas,

Prostration to You, Oh, Mother,

who is dear to Brahma the Omniscient

gazing in all directions, and the host of gods

. This whole universe is created

and presided over and joyously destroyed by You,

Who remains as ever rejoicing and playing and becoming overwhelmed,

again and again,

making most terrifying cries,

residing in the heart of my rapture,

speaking words which enlighten and fill the universe to overflowing,

while penetrating within and becoming its centre,

the size of a sesame seed, centrifugally spiralling,

and continously showering great joy upon the devotees of Your lotus feet,

of whose misery You are fully aware, and

You burn the seed from which the universal suffering proliferates;

those devotees who can,

even for a moment,

contemplate You do not know any other form of

emancipation than this of Your's which fills the entire universe permeated with the self-same substance and those who dwell in

You do not experience even a little flaw

and they have no degtruction even after a long time.

Wrapped in mystery, indiscernible You are,

and yet by sheer grace You let some know a

glimpse of Your dreadful secret and even they have no idea when

You will change and transform into the

Benign for which they ardently desire and pray.

Of all those who are obsessed with fear

and see nothing but the terrifying form

Alas! will there be any who will have

the penetration of vision to realize that

You are the sole reality of the entire universe?

Oh Supreme divine Lord of the shining ones,

Lord of Gauri, Abode of peace, Wielder of Maya,

Your potential for proliferation is imponderable

Who else could pacify the torrential flow

of Mandakini who could easily shatter

the very ground to which she falls

and who shakes both earth and heaven

in her descending course from above?

And yet You did it by lovingly receiving her

in Your matted hair, so compact that

it would't allow even a trickle to escape,

it is bedecked with the crescent of the new moon

and the residual bone of the bygone past

and those garlands swinging

and twirling in Your dance which are

made of the finest mandara flowers

of the heavenly tree interlaced with

priceless gems of purple hue that radiate

their dazzling sheen of colourful effulgence

from their place in Your golden crown.

Even the fifth-night moon renowned for its beauty

having decided there is no shame in surrendering to You,

has abandoned its pride aand pays homage to Your forehead

adorned with the beauty mark, of the third eye,

into which has fallen the Lord of the Earth,

whose waist is eternally encircled by the girdle of the seven oceans,

and Mahadeva and Brahma, despite all their supremacy,

are, also, enchanted by the magic of

Your maya, incredible!

Considering carefully the fate of those great ones,

O Supreme Mother, who can ever cross

Your oceanic spell without Your Grace?

Kama's bow that shoots flowery buds of libidinal disquiet

is put to shame by your curved eyebrows,

so much like tender vines,

yet if the bodiless Kama receives

even a little slap from them

he must slink silently away and go somewhere to clam down;

those who worship your dear lotus feet

have their state of misery extinguished

by the same pair of eyebrows;

ever engaged in compassionates side-glances,

your incessantly sparkling lotus eyes

are brimming with the nectar tears of mercy

which dispel the fear

arising from suffering and death;

from the corners of both eyes

sobbing and sobbing, comes a rapid rush of murmuring waters,

efficiently providing the incessant flow of the river of Grace

that carries all to the vast ocean of continuous joy,

on the other shore of which

hymns born of devotion to your feet are heard,

accompanied by dance and music,

filling your divine ears,

from the lobes of which golden bejewelled earrings glitter,

raising their reflection that registers

a magnificent sheen on your cheeks

and they glow like jewel-mirrors;

the rubeous hibiscus pays homage

to your two ruby-red lips,

sparkling within which

the row of your teeth, equal to pearls,

when put to shame a pearl necklace

to what then can they be compared?

Having thus attained to brilliance,

the full moon has now lost its lustre;

the cornmingling of the light from two rival sources

only enhances the radiant spell of your awesome face,

of the orb of its visage of tragic yet auspicious import,

with a pair of frightful fangs,

wrists bedecked with bracelets and bells,

followed by devoted females, ghosts, ghouls and demonesses

in mad procession flying and crying aloud

as you hurl your spear again and again,

brandishing a sculptured conch,

seimitar and decapitated head,

your horrible shout

makes the lion's roar sound weak;

and you repeatedly bursting into

cluster-peals of bright laughter

which suffice to pulverize

all the eight directions;

and in the brisk dance

your hard breasts that have

a semblance to iron balls

come into loud clash charging the valley between

with a sound like the drums

keeping to the rhythmic pace of time-beat

as well as the melody of the celestial music

accompanied by dance animated with

orchestral symphony of tambourine,

bell, flute and veena music,

which you listen with avowed interests,

your comely breasts bright as a pair of golden pots

smeared with scented paste of saffron

and sandalwood, partly concealed

by a band of crystalline pearls;

thus you are seen under heavenly tree kalpaka

decorated with garlands of bouquets,

adorned by this array of ornaments and many more

Stop!--it is absolutely impossible to describe!

Your midsection can be

completely encompassed within a hand's grasp;

beneath it is wrapped a precious silken skirt of exquisite beauty,

Your unkempt hair is tied with a gold brooch,

your waist, the chariot of Kama

from the hub of which course downward

your plump thighs, so soft and graceful

that even the elephant's trunk pays homage

; the beauty of Cupid's quiver is being challenged

in turn by each of your perfect ankles,

having established a rivalry, which will be victorious?

It is amusing, the tortoise having failed to gain

a similitude to the beautiful curve of your metatarsus

takes once again the cover of water to do penance;

victory to your toes set in the lotus flowers of your feet

for whose service are gathered celestial nymphs

like bees of unsatiated greed sipptng lotus honey

and dance with intoxication of loveful mirth

their sweet music resonating with chiming bells

and veena, a whole symphony is heard;

when you join them in jovial comradery

and paces with rhythmic steps, which in turn make

the soul-stirring harmony of the jingling sound

of the pail of your charming anklets;

as you thus walk on the snowy peak of Mt. Kailas

there assemble before you to kneel in reverence

the celestial beauties agitated with devotion,

and all the gods are bowing low,

aspiring to be caressed by your side-glance of love;

everyone gains what each aspires,

as you walk past radiating your self-generated joy,

receiving worship from all those who want to dwell

only where the Devi is present,

and thus when all revel in exquisite bliss,

this unfortunate one is caught in the eddy

of a confused agitation born of that misery

whenever the glimmering of your gracious side-glances

is withheld even momentarily;

therefore, Oh Compassionate One,

to You the prayer is offered...namaste, namaste;

to cross beyond the immensely dreadful ocean of change there is no way than

taking refuge in the ship

of your twin lotus feet, Oh Mother,

Infinite ocean of succor and compassion,

to you my prostrations.

I have come to receive your Grace

that grants whatever is desired;

let not reluctance arise in me

in giving my adoration to your lotus feet;

to you prostrations again and again!

Money, sex and worldly possessions,

having gone after and attained,

one enjoys only a distorted pleasure

which destroys all virtue and brings sadness;

Oh, do not send me in that direction.

Thinking "1 am the body,"

I have become bound by the three qualities of

sattva and so on; see into what a snare of maya

I am caught; Oh Mother, transform

this dwindling world of transcient forms,

and let there be the lightening flash

of illumination that will last

as long as the moon and stars shimmer in the sky.

Namaste Siva Mother, Namaste, Namaste.

Arivu - By Sree narayana Guru

This which is known here, is none other

On reflection, knowledge it becomes;

As knowledge is one with this ever,

Naught else there is but knowledge alone.

 

Without knowledge this could not be,

Even granting the known to have reality;

Should but this one knowledge be wanting

What knowing could there be for knowledge;

none such we can know.

 

Beyond the measure of knowledge,

whatever we can know

As knowledge even that too shines;

As within consciousness here, dream abides,

So comprised in knowledge is all that is there.

 

If knowledge be all-filling,

Non-knowledge, where could it abide?

Going after knowledge from here,

As knowing that there; where could it reside?

 

If from knowledge no fading out could be

And knowledge alone is, to where could

all this descend?

Knowledge is not known here,

When known both become one and the same.

 

Prior to knowledge "What?" if we should ask,

Other than knowledge nothing here is found;

The unknowing, what limitation could it have?

And as for knowledge, there is nothing here to see.

 

Of knowledge we are aware; of its absence

We have no awareness here; which in which abides?

Though known here, not as knowledge

do we un-know

When we ourselves should here regard.

 

Even from the day that knowledge ever was,

this too has been;

(But) how could this stand if knowledge

alone were real?

Of knowledge no disjunct category there is;

(And) whatever could there be if but knowledge

were not?

 

There is a habitation for knowledge

None distinct there is for the known;

If there is knowledge as an item distinct

How could the known enter there into?

 

On that day, unaware of aught

Consumed by the known, all will be gone.

What in knowledge' is it that is not known?

And as for knowledge, how could it arise at all?

 

As the knower of knowledge, what makes known here

That do we become; if this is conceded

What kind is knowledge, and how come

The known; and what kind could it be?

 

Yourself is what is known as knowledge;

By putting down your own knowledge,

it becomes the known.

The known is thus twofold: one conscious

of knowing,

And the other not conscious of the same.

 

Knowledge, too, likewise in its turn proceeding

Became reflected in the knower once again,

And one spark of knowledge falling

into this the known,

Into five shreds it became split up.

 

If one could still be cognizant of oneself

As the knower of knowledge,

still knowing knowledge to be all,

The one that is knowledge and the one

that is the knower,

And six within that which is known, eight thus

they become.

 

Corresponding likewise with this known

Knowledge, too, seven and one, makes eight;

Knowledge is thus superficially distinguished

As also the known, when separated one from one.

Jiva Karunnya Panchakam By Sree Narayana Guru

All are of one Self-fraternity.

Such being the dictum to avow,

In such a light how can we take life,

And devoid of least pity go on to eat?

 

The non-killing vow is great indeed,

And, greater still, non-eating to observe;

All in all. should we not say, Oh men of righteousness,

Even to this amounts the essence of all religions?

 

If killing were applied to oneself,

Who, as a favour, would treat such a dire destiny?

As touching all in equality, Oh ye wise ones,

Should that not be our declaration for a regulated life?

 

No killer would there be if no other to eat there was

Perforce, himself must eat!

In eating thus abides the cruder ill than in killing

In that it killing makes.

Not killing makes a human good -

Else an animal's equal he becomes.

No refuge has the taker of life,

Although to him all other goods accrue

Janani Navaratna Manjari By Sree Narayana Guru.

From that unitive mind-stuff, all encompassing,
a thousand tri-basic rays (of knowledge-knower-known) come and;
to and anon, self-consciousness gone,
There awakened love of food and such;
Fallen thus into the ocean of need and lost altogether,
Say when, Oh Mother, shall my inner being regain that path of hope To be merged within the domain of pure word import, bereft of all tri-basic prejudice
And, within the core of the radiance outspread of reason pure,
Reabsorbed in communion Cool, ever remain.

This variegated display by maya wrought--
Itself nothing is no other than awareness pure;
Air, stone, sea or fire, and the void too,
Are all but prime awareness alone!
The rightness of such a view, if one should praise,
No scriptural confusion can come;
Rival claims of action shall not vie;
Such goodly gain would suffice itself alone;
O Mother of the wisdom that all seek, easy and exalting at once.

Knowledge that comes but to go again
Has come from times of yore; on each vision such
The limbs and the inner self are swayed:
Filled with varied import and darkened by each,
Contracting, all within the Great Unknown is reabsorbed again!
Even seeing thus, again, and again Wisdom comes not:
The learned man of good deeds is but a bee
Fallen into the lotus core, drinking there the nectar
Of the unlimited experience of bliss supreme.

Thought, applied to waves, reduces them to water;
The snake as rope is known; the pot into clay resolved;
Likewise the world. Only when penetrated by thought
Has anything here reality at all.
Your feet are the root for all this, that I adore.
Bestow on me this boon which you alone can grant;
Become as the Real to me: refuge there is none other
Than you, O Mother of the Royal Yoga Way!

Oh Mother! Who within the encirling veil
Of the prime mind on high, ever dwells,
Whose free dance it is that impels here below
This clamorous medley of water, air and fire
As the world manifest--when all is but name alone;
With that delicate yarn of time and so on,
A fancy vesture overcovers your form
So none do know your true appearance,
Oh one that takes your stand where all the Vedas end!

You became the deer, and the fish too,
The snake, and the heavenly bird likewise,
The firm earth, and the river also, woman as well as man,
Even the world on high and inferno, within your name-form couple,
Assuming varied natures, cognizes here,
As the "I", that too is even you!
O, one of word-content alone, all is comedy indeed!

That wisdom's arrow that can smite my sin
In your flowery feet resides
My love, it is the bowstring, and an iron will the bow;
The ego-sense is the victorious one. While you the Mother it is who victory gives,
My sin-stained self, thereupon, is transformed
In terms of awareness, with the mightily heavy body too,
The world and all else into awareness leaps!

As existing and then as subsisting ever,
And into a pearl combining both, conscious of all the three,
As the heart, whose seed it is, that the sky and wind
With all the ramified expanse of sense-interests
Such as the eye projecting, and even as the eater of food
In glory abides, such are you,
O Mother, most high, unattainable even to psychic powers rare.

The earth and other elements here,
No basis they have, semblance only,
Specific expressions in awareness merely;
Whatever reality they have in this world
Is by you conferred alone!
In that exalted region where tongue or taste
Have no place, is where your glory abides.
Who is there to know your greatness, O Mother?
Words are weak, even for praising you, alas!
 

Anukampa Dasakam

Such Mercy that even to an ant

Would brook not the least harm to befall,

O Mercy-Maker do vouchsafe with contemplation

Which from Thy pure Presence never strays.

 

Grace yields blessedness; a heart Love-empty

Disaster spells of every kind.

Darkness as Love's eftacer and as suffering's core,

Is seed to everything.

 

Grace, Love, Mercy--all the three--

Stand for one same reality--Life's Star.

"He who loves is he who really lives." Do learn

These syllables nine by heart, in place of lettered charm.

Without the gift of Grace, a mere body

Of bone and skin and tissue foul is man Like water lost in desert sand,

Like a flower bereft of smell and fruit.

 

Those phases six that life do overtake

Invade not wisdom's pure domain;

Likewise the Mercy quality, when human form has gone

As good reputation's form endures.

 

That Dispenser of Mercy, could He not be that reality

Who, proclaiming words of supreme import,the chariot drives,

Or compassion's ocean, ever impatient for all creation,

Or who in terms clear non-dual wisdom expounds, the Guru?

 

In human semblance here, He is a divinity,

Or perhaps the law of right in sacred human form?

Is He the pure begotten Sen of the Lord Most High?

Or the kindly Prophet Nebi, pearl and gem in one?

 

Is He that soul personified who with holy ashes once

Fever drove away and many wonders worked?

Or yet that other of psychic power who wandering in agony.

 

Allayed His ventral distrees even with song?

ElSe is He that Sage of crowning fame who uttered once again

That holy script already known and writ in Hera's name?

Or He devoted to the Value of the Lord Supreme

Who here departed bodily ere life for him was stilled?

 

Dealing bounty here on earth and taking human form

Is He that Kama-Dhenu cow of all-providing good?

Or perhaps that wonder-tree of heaven supreme,

The Deva-Taru, which to each its gifts bestows?

Atmopadesa Satakam-Meaning by Gopu

One hundred verses on Self Instruction

1. May the chanting be commenced, with the five organs of perception turned inward and pacified, and again and again prostrating before that mysterious embryo (keru), which shines within and without the one who transcends knowledge.

2. With relentless search one should realize that the inner faculties, the senses, the body and all the worlds of our interest are transformations of the glorious substance of the Sun that shines in the void of the Absolute.

3. It should thus come to pass, that all the differentiation one might encounter in the world of empirical perception be known as substantially unitive, like the oneness of the waves that constantly rise on the surface of the ocean.

4. Knowledge, the object of knowledge, and one's cognition of both are in fact only variations of a beginningless Being. By merging in that knowledge of infinitude one should become undifferentlated with it.

5. One should conduct oneself in the light of that eternal lamp which witnesses the sleeping, waking and cliscur-sive cogitating of those who are wedded to their own worldly affairs, and which for itself has neither any beginning nor any extinction.

6. Alas! whois there to know the one unchanging Reality when all are subjected to the frequent rise of latent urges that compel them to wake and sleep and to eat ~)d fondle their objects of desires.

7. One should remain without waking oneself to distracting interests and without sleeping away from the reality of the Self. If one cannot do that by virtue of one's realiza-tion, one should offer oneself to serve those contemplatives who have gone beyond the dualities of birth and death and have known the secret of the pranava--AUM.

8. This body is like a foul-smelling gun. In it reside one's sensualities which are like five elusive birds that are always looking for opportunities to feed on chance gains. With right understanding and discerrment one should break away from their enchantment and should with resolution aspire for the good instead of being ensnared bythe pleasurable. Then alone will oneis inside be filled with the radiance of the unsurpassed bliss of the Absolute that will foil all distractions generated by sensuous attraction.

9. The phenomenal world is like a tree whose truth is concealed by a mysterious creeper, spread out in two directions and overladen with its flowers. A disciplined contemplative who lives under the shade of this tree escapes temptations that might otherwise lead one to tragic consequences such as being caught in hell-fire.

10. If a man sitting in the dark asks another "Who are you?" and the other out of curiosity asks in return, "And who are you?" the answer that comes from both will be the same--"I am"

11. What are spoken of as 'I', 'I',when carefully considered, are not separate entities. Within the substance these are only modes and the continuity of the ego is maintained by the connectedness of the affective attributes into which consciousness modifies.

12. The ego clings to a perishing body composed of skin, bones, and all kinds of filth. This is the non-self which is sure to decompose. One should aspire to transcend these limitations of the body to grow into the perfection of plenitude.

13. To become established inthe Supreme Being, offer the flowers of your mind to the Great Lord whose body is smeared with the ashes of the triple modalities of nature. Incline before Him in devotion. Turn your senses away from all objects of desire. Feel freed of all bondages. Become cool 'and do not be excited even by the wonder of the Absolute.

14. Remember the secret of the Upanishads. The Self in its pure state is limitless and indivisible. It is bereft of divisions in time and it fills the entire consciousness without the divisions of the knower, the known and the knowledge. One does not gain this state by merely making false claims to it.

15. To those fortunate ones who are enjoying the cream of absolute wisdom, ten thousand years will appear to be a short duration. But to those who are caught in the snare of relativism, even a split second will appear as a thousand years.

16. To one well-established in the Self, the secret of the Word comes as a cosmic sound. It fills his ears and drowns everything in them like a flooded river inundatinga desert. Just as it opens one's inner ear it also opens the eye of the inner self.

17. The Self can be compared to a hanging lamp with two tiers, each with five wicks. !t is of timeless origin and is always rotating. It burns as the shadow of the Self. Its wicks are modes of the inner organ and they are fed with the oil of precondi[ioned urges (vasanas).

18. The Self is not darkness. If it were darkness, we would not have known and identified ourselves as 'I', 'I'. As we do know, we should let everyone realize that the Self can be known.

19. Not knowing that everything is a transformation of the primeval Being, people come into clash, saying: it is the base; no, it is the crown; ,no, no, it is this end; no, it is that end, etcetera. All these perceived things of static or inertial forms are transient. How can there be any reality for a wave other than that of water, of which the former is only a mode?

20. This world has no other reality. If people say it has, that is wanting in sufficient reason. Even if a dull person mistakes a garland strung of fresh flowers to be a horrid reptile, will it become a snake?

21. This kind is dear to me. To another, something else is dear.Thus there comes confusion in the appraisal of the correct value of the objects of endearment. One should know that his experiencing of happiness is the same as another one's too.

22. What is dear to another--~that should spell endearment to me also. This is the correct policy. Therefore, whatever one does for good should be so intended as to make it beneficial to others too.

23. A compassionate man without any vested interest works both day and night for the welfare of others. On the other hand, a selfish man, desirous of his own good, toils day and night and comes again and again to his frustration.

24. What is known as that person, or this persian, when carefully considered, is the one undifferentiated form of the primeval Self. Whatever one does for the happiness of one's own self should also include the happiness of others.

25. What is good for one and might cause disaster to another is opposed to the unity of the Self. Those who grievously hurt others will bring upon themselves the pain of conse-quential hell-fire.

26. The Self that owns the body keeps all the limbs held together like a bolt by animating it with a vaporous stuff.Thus having, become identified with one's physical body, one loses right comprehension and fancies a separate reality for each person.

27. The Self is that knowledge which brings illumination of one's existence even when placed in the thick of darkness. As in the miraculous performance of a magician, the same knowledge assumes name and form and engages in action equipped with inner organs and senses.

28. That which has no beginning and end and clearly sees everything from bottom to top is turya, transcendent consciousness. The other extreme is the inert body which has no knowledge. That which remains in between and articulates as an agent of cogitation is nescience.

29. For one who sacrifices to the Supreme Lord the blossoms of one's mind, there is no other duty to perform. Or one can do overt action, by gathering flowers from the forest and engaging in ritualistic propitiation. A third alternative is to be a contemplative who stealthily avoids all snares of phenomenal illusion by exercising proper discernment.

30. The inert body does not know. It does not cogitate or articulate. One who knows all this to be only variations of knowledge, becomes expansive in the tranparency of comprehension and does not thereafter suffer from body identification.

31. Without prior experience one carnnot deduce inference.The Self is not a perceptible factor. So one cannot infer the existence of a principle postula*,ed as dharmi, the basis of attributes.

32. What we know is only the attributes and not the abstracted universal. As universal abstractions are never perceived, it is incorrect to say that earth and all such are factuu[ realities. They are only compositions of modes.

33. As when a burning ember is circulated in several 'figure of 8' movements and produces endless patterns, know-ledge, in order to know ils own polertia:s. modifies ilself into endless eidetic modes like ear:h and all such, and creates the phenomenal flux.

34. This is going on from beginningless time, his divine sport of the world, rotating endlessly, mounted on a chariot of becoming, which has for the spokes of its wheels infinitesimal counts of milliseconds.

35. The function of Wisdom-discernment comes like the dawn of ten thousand Suns. It is the primal Sun that cleaves asunder the veil of mfiya that p~ecipitates :he transient forms of ignorance.

36. Innumerable are the powers of knowledge. They can be mainly categorized into two~'samer. ess' and '1he other'. One should awake to she clarity of vision in which all forms of 'otherness merge and become one wish 'sameness'.

37. It is hard to win over the obduracy of 'the other' without having achieved the mastery of a vivid vision which leaves nothing outside it. By conquering the power of the indistinctivedess of 'this' which forces consciousness to split into specificity, one should gain the wisdom of integral unity. That alone will gain access to pure wisdom which leaves no room either to objectivize or to have the agency of a subject.

38. What is known distinctively as separate and specific entities--that is the 'other'. What shines forth as the indivisible whole--that is 'the same'. This is going to be elucidated hereafter. Having known these states, verticalize knowledge and learn the art of unifying consciousness in the all-inclusiveness of the 'same'.

39. Apropos to these two powers, there is also a second division. One of these is an attribute of the 'same'. The 'other' qualifies that which is never exhausted of its indistinctiveness that asks for clarification. These are the two kinds.

40. Their specific powers alternate between the synthetic and the analytic. Even though innumerable are their contexts of operation, the dual functions of assuming the agency of the subject and the objectivization of knowledge--in their entirety, belong to these two entities.

41. When one says, "This is a pot", what comes first as "this" is called visama, the difficult to discern; "pot" is its visesa, the qualifying attribute. For the endless sense-oriented cogitations to proliferate, one should bear in mind that the indicative pronoun "this" is the fountain head.

42. When one says, "This is knowledge", what comes first as "this" is called sama, the unifying sameness; its distin-ctive attribute is bodham, "awareness". For all mentations like discursive cogitation to cease and to gain the path of liberation, one should contemplate on "this", which inheres in the universal identity.

43. Even good people engaged in virtuous action are caught in Nature's repetitive compulsions and they helplessly go round and round in obligatory action. Mere omission of action does not cure the mind of its urge to modulate. Only unitive understanding, which is bereft of desires, brings emancipation.

44. The normafive essence of everybody's conviction is the same. Those who do not know this secret become fanatical in establishing relativistic points of view and argue like the proverbial blind men who went to "see" an elephant and couldn't agree between them in the description of the animal. Avoid all such disputes by cultivating the all-embracing attitude of sameness.

45. One man's faith will appear as unworthy to another. A basic dictum of another's religion is often looked upon with disdain and is rated unsatisfactory. Such confusion born of irrational prejudices continues in the minds of people as long as the unitive secret of universal sameness remains unknown.

46. It is not possible to vanquish any religion by fighting it. By becoming competitive and fighting each other's religion, the adherence of the members of the persecuted religion only becomes increased in its fanatictzeal. By promoting religious feuds one is only destroying his own integrity and succumbs to the evils of hatred. This should never be forgotten.

47. In principle all are insisting on coming to a single faith. Disputants do not realize this. Wise people who are free of sectarian exclusiveness know this secret.

48. In spite of being identified with one's own body, people do think if other persons and things as their own and say "This is mine" or "That is mine". On considering this, it is evident that everyone has some experience of the Oneness of the Self,

49. All beings, at all times, everywhere, are exerting them- selves to attain happiness. This quest for happiness is the "One Religion" in the world, of which no one has any dispute. Knowing this, one should restrain from being lured into any sin of fighting one's own fellow beings.

50. The impressions of earth, water, fire, wind, sky, the ego sense, knowledge, mind (and all aspects of the one and the many such as of) thewaves and the ocean--on entering in consciousness transform into knowledge and rise into heirarchic series of consciousness.

51 .From pure knowledge emerges one's ego-sense which is simultaneously paired with 'the sense of thisness'. Like a twin creeper, 'the Self and the other' entwine the rnsya-tree all over and hide everything.

52. When the sky of consciousness is enflamed with the vibrancy of sound (the Word) all perceptual forms dis-appear in its radiant blaze. When, in that splendor, the small voice that gives finality tO the tribasic segment-ation also ceases, there prevails only theradiance of the Self.

53. The Primordial potency inherent in this is the seed which gives birth to all that we see here. Bearing that in mind, and never forgetting that again, one should meditate on its secret to dispel the spell of rnaya.

54. In wakefulness there is no sleep and likewise there is no sleep in the waking state. Day after day these twain are born of rn4ya's womb, and they keep on alternating.

55. Our wakeful experience is also like a long dream. Both our waking and dreaming terminate after a period of time. Being subject to confusion, no one sees the aloneness of the universal substratum.

56. In the sea of consciousness, modulations arise one after another and cause the experience of perceiving embodied objects. Alas! Where is any end to this? In the sea of the samvit, latent action is always ready to actualize.

57. Even in a quiescent state of consciousness, there lurk many traits of rn~ya. As in an ocean endless effects are produced with the configuration of water, its taste and so on, worlds after worlds are created out of the latent potentials of consciousness.

58. One should realize that it is futile to ruminate on the past, be expectant of the present and fancy about the future. Without endlessly counting and measuring in confusion, one should cognize the One that always prevails, allowing of no differentiation.

59. I do not exist without having any knowledge of it. Without me, my knowledge cannot exist on its own. The light that shines is the same, both in the knower and in the knowledge. When contemplated it will undoubtedly be known that both are the same.

60. Even when a person, oblivious of the absolute status of knowledge, speaks of it as his or her private experience, knowledge does not become either differentiated from the truth ofthe knower or alienated from the Supreme Word that illuminates all minds.

61. Objects of perception appear to be of diverse attributes in accordance with the innate quality of each sense organ. Gross objects even of faulty perception such as the sky, when identified with name, become part of the concept-ual matrix and transform into knowledge.

62. Do not despair that you cannot own the Absolute as your private experience. What knowledge can come by mere negation? Nothing. Nor does knowledge come by merely repeating the word "Absolute". It comes only by continuous contemplation.

63. Wise men know that there is only Knowledge, so they remain one with it and do not struggle. For them the truth to be known is here and now. Those who do not know their secret think of it as an unknown entity to be sought and discovered. Under that illusion they struggle and agonize themselves. Only a few see the secret of the wise.

64. Every object of perception evokes a preconditioned memory and one stumbles on its imagined consequences. Banish all such frivolous memories. The only memory that is worth cherishing is one's primal identification with the priceless ultimate Knowledge.

65. There is nothing in this world which we have not known at least once (as pure Knowledge). When the same appears clothed in the garment of forms, they are thought of as separate entities, not known before. Who is there to wake up from hissomnambulism and realize that it is his own dear Self that is seen as all these? It is very strange indeed.

66. In this world of becoming, the food that nourishes the body and all else comes as a matter of course. Everything undergoes transformation. Only one thing remains unchanged. That is knowledge. We are also that self- same Knowledge, Others too are none other than that.

67. All that comes within the ambit of experience can be divid-ed into two. One is the ordinary (that can be perceived, calculated, analysed and categorized). The other is the transcendent which is beyond the ken of one's mind to grasp. Apart from these, there is nothing else, here or elsewhere. This is

68. Like the presentiment of a snake seen on a rope, the reality of the ego-sense shifts from body to the Self and from the Self to the body. On one occasion it is experi-enced as profound and when it alternates it is felt as profane. Only one who can discern knows the Truth.

69. Our organism can be compared to a libidinal chariot yoked to sense perceptions which are like its horses. Its occupantis ego, the image of the Self. It is driven by the mind, and the ego is restlessly pursuing objects of pleasure in vain.

70. One pleasure-principle (rati] expands and transforms into the ego, the senses, the mind, the body and all that is; and it is as if its proliferation has no end. it will go on operating itself till the cognizing Self realizes that it is not any of the pleasure-pursuits but knowledge, pure and simple.

71. Nobody remains established forever in a state of same- ness. The process of becoming is going on; and all are subjected to this beginningless sport of the Divine. When all this is known in its entirety, one becomes happy beyond measure.

72. One aspect is action--that belongs to nescience. There is another aspect which is permeated with consciousness-- that belongs to the sphere of knowledge. Although these two thus stand divided, as ordained by maya, to those who are successful in adopting a non-dual attitude, the two together will give the pure experience of transcen- dence.

73. In one thing there can be many constituents, and many things can be encompassed by one meaning. Thus, when everything is understood by complementing equat- ions, nothing falls outside knowledge. This secret of all-inclusive knowledge is not known to all.

74. In the Earth, there are innumerable particles and in each particle there is a world of the same earth-principle. Just as the body is conceptually envisioned by conscious-ness, consciousness is articulated by the body. When carefully considered these are not two.

75. It is as if we are in an ocean of consciousness. Nature can be equated to the water. The body is like the foam. The self is the ocean. What constantly arise as '1', '1' are the waves. The flowerings of knowledge in the mind are pearls. What each person enjoys is the nectar of immortal bliss.

76. As sand in a wasteland is ceaselessly blown by gusts of wind which also disturb the surface of a well and make it increasingly shallow, the sands of untruth are continuously disfiguring consciousness, and the inner self is cluttered with multifarious forms.

77. The Self and the world are not two. The transcendent is the sky. The horizontal blast Of energy is wind. Know-ledge is fire. The senses are water. Objects of interest are the earth. Thus what is shining forth as the quintessence ofthefive principles is in truth only one.

78. There is neither any death nor birth nor any manifested form of life. There are neither men nor gods nor anything of that sort--there are only names and forms. Their substance is only that of a mirage in a desert--and that is, for sure, no substance at all.

79. On the eve of birth there is no existence. The emergence from the womb is not a factual reality in a posterior moment. How can it be? Death is also like this. Everything seems to be by the glorious presence of cons-ciousness.

80. Rest and motion cannot happen at the same time. In like manner, creation, existence and dissolution cannot happen in the same place at the same time. When critically examined these concepts have no substantial validity. They are only words, such as ksiti, appended as a nomenclature to earth.

81. Nature divides itself as the enjoyer and the enjoyed. The conceiving self that illuminates all as counterparts of knowledge is the enjoyer; what is extended as 'thisness' both here and in the beyond is the universe that is enjoyed.

82. Like fire that emits from churning sticks, there arises a wisdom of great discrimination from the ~ind of discern-ing contemplatives. It burns in the sky of consciousness as a supernal sun and everything becomes fuel for it.

83. The changless Self, from its vertical height, witnesses the flux of becoming; and notices how bodies exist and perish, come into being again, and how one is substi-tuted by another.

84. For the mere fact that one perceives the forms of transformation, it cannot be maintained that the modi- fications, such as of clay, are real. When critically considered, clay alone is and the form is unreal. The very many entities that are seeming to be so are only nature's modalities that transform knowledge.

85. No image can exist without a model. If the world is a shadow it should have somewhere its archetype. No such original is seen anywhere. Therefore, this world is neither a model nor-its image. Everything seen here is like a snake painted by a master a'rtist.

86. The substance of one body is not in another. This fact contradicts the rejection of individual formations. As the verity of objects persists through time, their sub-stantiality gains the status of the real.

87. When each entity is taken alone, it has existence and it excludes other things by the law of impenetrability. When this fact is considered, body and such things cannot be rated as real or unreal. They are to be termed as indescribable.

88. In fact, all that we encounter is real as such. The philo-sopher in his contemplation sees everything as belonging to one unitive principle. When one does not see this inner truth, several tribulations come like the snares of a revengeful robyn.

89. From knowledge, there emerge countless sparks that are both real and unreal. The conglomeration of them appears as the universe. The understanding that nothing can be, other than knowledge, will give it homogeneity.

90. The unreal cannot conceal the real. That is our experi-ence. Existence asserts itself at every step, and it produces all effects such as the body.

91. It is a law that one strives to actualize what is dear to one°s heart. AS this impulsion to act is constant, its cause should be understood as a dear value without a beginning, never fully spent, unpredictable and one with-out a second. In short, this is the one happiness that gives reality to life.

92. The dynamics to act is eternal. As an unexpended law, it acts outside in correspondence with the perception of a dear value. These two are inseparable. By the action performed outside, this binary function is known.

93. To one who has withdrawn all interest from the change-ful body, nothing is more dear than the Self. As this love for the Self never diminishes in anyone, it should be known as the eternal.

94. There is an inherent iniquity in the unreal world and Reality presenting themselves as one indiscernible whole. In these, which cannot be demarcated verbally or con-ceptually, I~ow can any role of methodology be applied?

95. This world of manifestation is like a sportive display of maya, who conceals her forms and creates everything with her essence. Continuously she presents one limb after another and makes this grand exhibit of the cosmos with millions of luminaries.

96. The finitude of the atom and the infinitude of the indi-visible whole shine side by side as if they exist and also as they do not exist. So it is not possible to determine with any certainty which of these two experiences is true.

97. On that day when the finite is fully absorbed in the glory of the infinite, that knowledge will attain the perfection of the Plenum. One cannot even imagine the totality of the all-filling consciousness without one experiencing its immeasurable magnitude. It is like an ocean of silence in which everything is submerged.

98. It is evident that we do not know what this august reality is; otherwise, how could we qualify every touch of pleasure as great happiness? The Self is not the sum total of dependent origination. Even when the intellect and all such faculties are undone, the Self will remain unaffected as pure knowledge.

99. Knowledge and the Self spoken of as '1' are one and the same to such a person, from whom the veil of ignorance is removed. To him whose intelligence is still veiled, there will be many hesitations to admit this identity. If '1' can stand apart from Knowledge, there will not be anyone to know Knowledge.

100. I am neither this nor that nor the content of what is perceived as being. Know it to'be pure existence, all- embracing consciousness and the joy immortal.· Be brave with such clear vision, discard all attachment to being and non-being, and gently, gently, merge in that Truth that fills all with enlightenment, and serene joy – AUM.